History 5 Lesson 165

Unix 

Thomson was born in NEw Orleans in 1943. Ritch was born in New York in 1941. They were the last of the Bell Labs engines to leave Muitics. Thompson kept playing on his computer. They invented the Unix in 1969. UNIX doesn’t matter what hardware it runs on. Programs do just one thing. Output becomes input. Rewrite and delete often. Build more tools, don’t just add people. Kerns shell programs. Shell: comets user to kernel. Hierarchical life system. Design for multiple users and security. Bell Lab’s used unix at work. Invented “C” programming language to port to other computers. Bell Labs licensed to other companies. College students took it with them to the business world. Steve Jobs built a Unix-based operating system called NeXISTEP. 

Microprocessor

Robert Noyce, founder of Intel. Busicom asked Intel to build a processor for their calculator in 1969. Intel identified problems. Intel revised the chip’s design and reduced its complexity. Created the first microprocessor the 4004 in 1971. Microprocessor: processing and control. ALU is a fundamental building block. ALUs can be combined to make FPUs GPUs. Control unit driven by a crystal clock manages operations. Same processor design can be used in multiple applications. Busicom released exclusive rights of 4004 to Intel. Advertised programmable computer on a chip. Followed up with an 8-bit processor that led Altair. With a sparkling microcomputer. Apple computer founded in 1976. 

Video Game Console 

Ralph Baer was born in Germany in 1922. Climbed the electronic industry. Began working on TV projects for the military in the 1950s. Came up with the idea for a TV game in 1966.  He convinced the CEO to approve more funding. Magnavox Odyssey was released in 1972. Video game console: Computer that displays games on TV. Wireless controllers gyroscope. Provides entertainment experience possible. Odyssey sold pretty well. Pon appeared in 1972. Atew 2600 released in 1977. Great video game crash of 1983. Nintendo revived the industry with the NES in 1985. 

VHS and VCR

First VCRS released to the commercial industry in 1956. The JVC company wanted to develop records for consumers. Sony developed Betamax JVC developed VHS. Betmans could only record 1 hour. The VHS-playing VCR was released in the US in 1977. Tape heads transfer information from tape to screen. The heads spin ganist magnetic tape. Magnetic fields in the tape head read or write data to and from tape.  Several consumer benefits. It was programmable. It became cheaper to record home movies. Initial resistance from movie studios. Consumers wanted longer recording time. RcA released a 4-hour recorder Several competing VHS models appeared.  

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