Science 6 Lesson 125

So I know that there’s not many of my 6th grade science projects are on here but that’s because I’ve done a lot of reading for Science, which I don’t mind because I love to read, now onto the assignment. I was supposed to got to a farm or a ranch and ask some questions, I live on a ranch and we farm a little so I just asked my dad the questions.

  1. What are some practices that limits soil erosion and water pollution? You can use cover crops so that when it rains your fields don’t erode and all of the sediment and the soil doesn’t get in the streams.

2. What are some methods used to conserve the natural resources? For Farming: Use a drip system, it has pipes that goes under the ground so the water reaches the roots of the plants. If the water was just placed on top, where the water could evaporate. So that uses more water just to make sure that your crop is well watered. For Ranching: There’s a saying take half leave half. That just means if your grazing a pasture, you want to let your cattle or whatever livestock you have graze half of it then leave half so put then in another pasture. That way the grass can grow, the whole cycle kind repeats itself.

3. What would happen differently if these methods were not used. If you didn’t have a cover crop your fields would erode, the wind would take away all of the soil, so you can’t plant anything for next year. The same thing would happen if you didn’t use the take half leave half method.

History 5 Lesson 150 

Crystal Oscillator

Series of incremental discoveries. Curies discovered piezoelectricity. Used it to build instruments for detecting radioactivity. Piezoelectricity drew Scientific and invented the first oscillator in 1917. Dr.Cady invented his own in 1920. Patent lawsuits ensued.Solid materials can produce electricity when squeezed. Also works in reverse. Crystals can generate oscillating signals with low power. Multiply and divide with low power. Multiply and divide the output frequencies. Important as filters in transmitters and receivers. Better radios appeared in the 1920s. It was used in most radio stations by 1926. Made their way into clocks. Us Army converted its radio equipment to crystal in 1939. The wristwatch appeared in 1969. Critical in all electronics after the 1960s. 

George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver was born in the 1860s. Became a Christian as a boy, learned to give back to others. Earning a college education, he went to work for Booker T. Washington. He ran experimental farms. Mostly known for his farming techniques. Pioneered crop rotation in the South. Promoted peanut recipes Mobile classroom for teaching farmers. Became famous for work with peanuts. Teddy Roosevelt became an admirer, he was honored by the Royal Society of Arts in England. Became nationally known after speaking before congress in 1929. 

Yagi Uda Antenna 

Tohoku university in Japan. Hidetsugu Yagi, researched radio waves. Shintaro Uda studied under Yagi. He invented the Yagi Uda antenna in 1926. Radio waves induce currents in antennas. Yagi Uda increases directivity. It is  a modified dipole, the reflector and directors focus. It was cheap to make. IT was published in an English article in 1928. It was used when broadcasting went mainstream after the war. Yagi Uda antenna works well in VHF and UHF Frequency bands. 

    Penicillin 

Alexander Fleming was born in Scotland in 1881. Studied under a vaccine professor. He saw hundreds of wounded soldiers die during WWI. Studied bacteria for the next 14 years. Invented Penicillin in 1929. Penicillin can be swallowed or injected. It’s a fungus that kills bacteria. It’s grown in large tanks. 13 years would pass until the first patient was saved. Hard to grow an excited body quickly. Dr. Florey looked up the project in 1938. He worked with Ameraicans to mass produce it.            

History 5 Lesson 145

Before I start on the inventions for the week (Which I may or may not have forgotten to post) I just realized that I haven’t posted in a while, which not that I think any of you minded. I was busy with showing my animals and only on this last Sunday was I done for the year. I’m sorry for not posting this sooner, as I said earlier I was really busy and I wasn’t doing much school because of it, but now I’m done with showing, (For now) and I can get back to school, it might take me a while though, because as of right now, all I’m doing is one subject a day maybe two. Because our family reunion is coming up! Along with my birthday and a rodeo. Our last rodeo of the season, or at least out local rodeo association’s season. My mom said that there might be some rodeos this Winter, which I’m excited for! Now onto the inventions this week! Or whenever it was that I was supposed to post this.

Safety Razor 

King Camp Gilltte was born in Wisconsin in 1855. He lived through the Great Chicago Fire. He worked as a cork salesman. He noticed people bought disposable products. Applied that to the razor. Invented a safety razor in 1901. Safety razors cleanly shave skin. It uses a protective guard to prevent injury. It uses disposable blades. Permanently handle disposable blades. He put his picture on ads. It became successful because of low prices. In the 1920s refocus on research. Razor innovations appeared in 1998.

Airplane 

The Wright Brothers were born in 1878. They were inspired by Otto Lilienthal. They focused on aircraft control systems. They took experience from making bicycles. Balance was key. They studied birds. Created “Unstable” Wing designs. They built wind tunnels. A thousand glides in 1902. Propeller engines and jet turbines. They carry passengers and cargo great distances quickly. It received little newspaper attention. There was a public event in 1904. The Wrights secured a government contract in 1908.

Vacuum Tube 

John Rleming was born in England in 1849. He wanted to be an engineer at 11. Studied under Maxwell. Worked in Edison’s company then under Marconi. Invented Vacuum tube in 1904. Thermionic emission: electrons flow from hot filament. Receptor plate is cool and eleives electrons. It’s used to convert AC to DC. Block negative current. It can be used to build radio demodulators. Extracts information from AM signal. Fleming’s value used by Marconi. Published paper in 1905. 

The Model T

Henry Ford was born in Michigan in 1863. Learned to maintain portable steam engines. Built his quartile in 1896. Edison encouraged pursuits. Ford’s race car in 1902 promoted his brand. Ford invented the Model T in 1908. The Model T was the first affordable car. Henry Ford said “Any color you want, as long as it’s black.” Perfected assembly line and interchangeable parts. It gave families freedom. Succeeded because of the price. One new car every 3 minutes. From $ 825 to $260 in 16 years. Ford didn’t even have time to advertise for a long time.  

The Apocalypse of 2020 Part 6

Like I said in my last post it was gonna be a while for me to figure what was gonna happen next. And I’m sorry I didn’t think it would take me this long to figure out what happens next. But I talked to my friend and together we came up with some ideas. We were trying to think of weapons for all of the team, since Ava had her bat and we figured out what Ryan’s weapon was gonna be, but we haven’t figured out the others. We made Ryan’s to fit his personalty, and that’s what we want to do with everyone else. If you have any ideas let me know, I will greatly appreciate it. Sorry again, I had kinda forgotten about this story because I have several others I’m was working on and I recently got five show lambs and a show steer and all of them are a lot of work, so I haven’t found any time to write. Which really sucked because I love to write. Anyway I’m sure you are all like ‘enough with the excuses  get to the story!’ So I’ll quite talking and let you read to story.

“I guess he does.” I say. That night Benjamin slept on the couch which was fine with me. We didn’t build a room for him because Benjamin slept in the lab we built for him. He stayed there for long periods of time and only came out when it was time to eat. It was time to go out and get more supplies. I sigh, then climb down the rope ladder. 

“Guys, let’s go!” I bounce on the balls of my feet. Hurry up, hurry up. I pull out my bat and I examine the nails in it. I need to add more. Finally everyone climbs down. 

“Ok, we are all gonna go to the mall and get what we need there then we’ll go to the grocery store.” They nod. And we went to the mall. I got some clothes, everyone else did too then for some reason Ryan decided to duck off and grab a pack of pencils, we don’t even use them that much anymore. When we get to the grocery Ryan grabs some soup cans. We don’t eat soup, what was he up to? 

Ryan

As I was grabbing the cans I needed for my weapons I was planning on building Emily can up to me, 

“Whatcha doing?” Her hands were behind her back and her black hair was pulled up in her signature bun. Today she wore a black tank top with tan shorts. I turned to face her with a smirk on my face.

“You’ll see when we get home.” She arched an eyebrow questionly at me.  

“Here.” She grabbed the cans from my hands and set them down on the ground. She grabs my hand and leads me to the back of the store. Uh, what’s she doing?! When we get to the back of the store she turns to me. God it was dark over here. That’s when Emily pushed me against the wall. Ah! What was she doing, her face was getting really close to mine. Then she kissed me! She freaking kissed me! She tasted like cotton candy! I love cotton candy! I love the way she tasted. I was shocked at first, but then my hands moved to her waist pulling her close to me. Her arms looped around my neck and her fingers tangled in my hair. She looked at me for a second then leaned in to kiss me again, only this time I beat her to it! We only pulled apart when the need for air became too much. 

“Woah.” I said, still holding Emily close to me, hehe, she smelled like apples and cinnamon.  

“Yeah,” Emily muttered, 

“Excuse us, but we need to head back, it’ll be getting dark soon and that’s when the zombies  get really bad out here.”  Jason said, Emily sighs dramatically, 

“I was not done here, can’t you give us a few more minutes.” 

“Yeah, man, come on! I finally got a girl to like me! Don’t ruin the moment!” I complained. Jason and Ava laughed.

“You guys didn’t let us stay and finish our moment,” Ava said, 

“Truth be told, school is even scarier now that there’s no other people aside from the zombies. I wanted out of there, in this dark corner it’s not so bad.” I say, Emily let go on me but she held my hand instead. I menatlly sighed, I liked it a lot better when she was holding onto me, not just holding my hands, oh well, I’m sure she wouldn’t mind if we cuddled on the couch! 

“Can we go? Listing four gives me a headache!” Benjamin wines.

“Nobody cares about what you think Benjamin!” I snapped. He rolled his eyes, and walked off, but not before flipping us off. I flipped him off then led Emily by the hand all the way home. I got a girl to like me! I mean it DID take a zombie apocalypse for that to happen but still, I got a hot girl to like me! I hummed to a song the whole way home, man this really put me in a good mood. Emily seemed to be in a good mood too, I did a little dance as I made my way to the couch setting done the now empty soup cans, a drill, my pack of pencils, and a pencil sharpener.         

“Ryan what are you doing?” Emily asks me as she sits next to me. 

“You’ll see.” I stick my tongue out of the corner of my mouth slightly. When I’m done I hold up the spiky can, 

“This is what I’m using to fight off the zombies.” I held up the can proudly. She shakes her head, and lets out a small chuckle, I grab the other soup can and do the same thing to it until I have two spiky soup can weapons!  

History 5 Lesson 140

Diesel Engine 

Rudolf Diesel was born in France in 1858. He Went into engineering school when he was 14. He began experimenting with ammonia engines. Invented Diesel engine based on Carnot cycle in 1893. Diesel engines don’t need a spark to ignite. It Uses hot compressed air. Diesel fuel specially designed to work in Diesel engines. More fuel efficient and reliable than gasoline engines. It produces high torque at RPMs. The commercial world brought into Diesel engines immediately in 1894. Built 23 HP engine in 1896. Diesel-powered ships appeared in 1903. Germas built diesel-powered U-boats in 1912. Diesel engines began replying to steam locomotives in the 1910s.

Mousetrap 

Several mouse traps had been built in the 1800s. James patented a trap in 1879. “Little Nipper”  patented in 1898 in Britain. William C. Hooker invented the modern mousetrap in 1894. Mouse Traps kill mice. Spring-loaded bar swings down and breaks the neck of the mouse. The traps effectively eliminate the mice. It prevents further spread of disease from the mice. Patent holders sold to bigger companies. Hooker and Mast manufactured improved versions. Over 4,400 patents developed from 1838 to 1996. 

    Radio 

Marconi was born in Italy  in 1874. He became interested in Hertr’s experiments. Noticed no one applying waves practically. Applied them to wireless telegraphy. He built his own transmitters at home. He invented the radio in 1895. Radio waves are eaunchent from antennas. From 3 KHZ to 300 GHZ. AM and FM are important. Amplitude modulation changes the wave’s strength. Frequency modulation changes the wave’s frequency. AM is good for voice FM is for music. It transmits to multiple listeners at once. Other methods besides AM and FM. Italy wasn’t interested at first. The British were interested. Public lectures by the British government made Marconin world-famous. Gained publicity from the Titanic accident. 

Semi-Automatic Shotgun

John Browning was born in Utah in 1855. He built his first rifle in 1878. Winchester purchased this model from Browning. Browning developed lever action rifles and pump-action shotguns. He invented the semi Automatic Auto- 5 shotguns in 1898. The semi-auto shotgun automatically loads the next shell after firing. There were several methods for doing so. Easier and quicker to fire shotgun rounds. Advertised to hunters and sportsmen. Was legendary by the 1940s. Manufactured for 100 years until 1998.         

History 5 Lesson 135

Coca-Cola

John Pemberton was born in George in 1831. He fought in the Civil War. He became addicted to morphine after he got saber slashed. He relished his addiction and experimented with coca wines. It helped with the morphine addiction. Unfortunately a law passed for no one to have any alcoholic beverage. So Pemberton had to think of something else for his morphine addiction. Pemberton invented coca-cola in 1886. Coca-cola is a sweet, carbonated drink. And my favorite soda! Back to the history now! It contains caffeine from kola nuts. Another reason why it’s so rare for me to have one. It has caffeine in it! Back to the history…again. Coca-cola originally contained cocaine. Then cocaine was removed in 1903. While we know the general ingredients of coca-cola the whole recipe is a secret. 

Pemberton sold coke in a pharmacy in 1886. Coca-cola company founded in 1892. Advertised on outdoor wall painting. Sopislacted image Advertised drink benefits. 

Induction Motor

Nickola Tesla was born in the Austrian Empire in 1856. Wanted to become an engineer. He went to work with Edison’s company. Founded Tesla Electric company in 1887. Invented induction motor in 1888. Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Stator and rotor.  Rotating magnetic fields make the motor turn. Ac power produces the fields. Sator fields induce magnetic fields in the rotor. The motor produces torque. Turns fans and pumps. Tesla’s investors marketed his motor. He demonstrated to engineers and businessmen. Licensed motor to Westinghouse. Led to the end of war of Currents. 90% of motors are induction motors.

Ballpoint Pen

John J. Loud was born in MAssachusetts in 1844. He was a trained lawyer, but went into banking with his father Interested in genealogy and church activities. Invented ballpoint pen in 1888. Small metal ball used as tip. Gravity and capillary action moves ink through the pen. Two inks: oil-based and water based. Useful on a wide variety of surfaces. Loud’s design worked as intended. He took developments in Chemistry to prevent ink from leaking. Major breakthrough came in 1938 with Biro’s pen. 

Zipper

Whitcomb Judson was born in Chicago in 1846. He began patenting inventions in the 1880s. He was tired of buttoning his shoes. He invented the zipper in 1890. The zipper is two strips of fabric together. Little teeth are locked together. A y-channel slider. Quick and easy to seal-up openings in clothes. Useful fo carges storage too. Jusdson founded a company advertised at Chicago world’s fair in 1893. It continued improving. Hired an electrical engineer named sunback 1906. He developed modern design by 1923. BF Goodrich put them on their rubber boots. Levi put on their jeans in 1947.    

History 5 Lesson 130

Light Switch 

John Henry Holmes was born in England in 1857. Joseph swan developed an early light bulbs company.  Holmes attended Swan’s demonstration. Holmes invented the light switch in 1884. Light switches make it easy to conroe circuits. Instantly turned it on or off. Safe prevents arcing and fire hazard. Switch cna control larger relays or switches for more high-powered circuits. William J. Newton extended Holmes’ invention to toggle switch. He was installed by builders. It was required by building and electric codes. 

Skyscraper

William Jenney was born in 1832 in Massachusetts. Learned engineering in France. Fought in the Civil War (North). He married in 1867. Invented a skyscraper in 1884 after discussion with his wife. Skyscraper: 328 feet tall or more. Replaces load-bearing wall with load bearing steel frame. Elvatos is crucial to skyscraper design. Strong foundation keeps it safe during earthquakes. Increase population density in popular areas. The Home Insurance Building was the first skyscraper. Others quickly followed. Chicago and New York were the focus of skyscrapers. Moderate success in Europe initially. 

Dishwasher 

Josephine Chochrane was born in Ohio in 1839. Got married in the 1850s to a business owner. They hosted large partes on fine china. Josephine wanted an easier way to clean dirty dishes. She invented dishwashers in 1886. It automatically cleans dirty dishes. The operation is more complex. Racks hold dirty dishes. Jets spray them with hot water. This sterilizes the dishes. Josephine sold them to her friends first. She then showed it off at the 1893 world’s hair in Chicago. Commercial and dining industries were interested. began making their way into homes in the 1950s.   

Electromagnetic Waves

Heinrich Hertz was born in 1857 in Germany. Studied engineering with Jelmhotter in Berlin. Hertz thought it was too difficult at first to prove Maxwell’s waves. But he noticed something by accident. Proved the existence of electromagnetic waves in 1887. Electromagnetic radiation that propagates through space. Traveling at the speed of light. Electric and Magnetic fields. They can carry information. Useful in the medical field. Hertz didn’t think they would be useful. Died at 36 years old. Others picked up his work. Wireless telegraphy invented by 1894.      

English 6 Lesson 130

If I was in the situation that the family from Swiss Family Robinson was in this would be an idea I have. No, it doesn’t really help me survive but this was all I could come up with. I think that if the family had more of a little tree house city instead of the one big tree house, they could use zip lines to get around. They could use rope for the line and heavy duty wooden suit hangers for getting around, they could twist the metal hook around so that it doesn’t pop off. They could use these zip lines to go from place to place in the mini tree house city thing, or go right onto the ground if they needed to go hunt for food. Like I had said this has nothing to do with helping them (or me if I were stuck in their position) survive but it would be a cool idea. It sounds fun even though I’m not one to do zip lining, going to water parks (I’m definitely not a water person I’ll drink but that’s it I won’t swim in it) tubing in the snow or water. I think I’ve made it clear I don’t like swimming. My point is I wouldn’t mind trying this zip line.         

History 5 Lesson 125

Light Bulb

The arc lamp required too much power. Edison tried 3,000 different versions of the light bulb. He tested 6,000 kinds of plant matter for filaments. Edison invented the incandescent bulbs in 1879. Incandescent lights are glass tubes with metal filaments inside. Filament heart-resistant tungsten. The metal “evaporates”. The vacuum increases filament lifespan. Inert gas reduces evaporation, it powers bulbs to scatter light, it lights up dark areas cheaply. They replaced gas lamps in theaters. Edison rapidly expanded his power grid in the US. New models have the same light, less cost. Good light improves appearance in mirrors. 

Cash Register

James Ritty was born in 1836 in Ohio. He opened a saloon in 1878. Ritty’s employees were stealing. He gained inspiration while on a boat ride to Rurope. Ritty invented the cash register in 1879. Cash registers ring up transactions. It guards the cash drawer. It corrects change calculated for customers. Produces two sets of documentation. It reduces the cashier skill set, reduces errors, and prevents theft. Ritty’s machine “registered” each transaction audibly. National cash Register added paper receipts Improved marking by identifying customer hot button: theft. Established American Selling Force. Controlled 95% of markert by 1911. 

Thermostat

Warren Johson was born in Vermont in 1847. He became a science professor when 34. Johnson invented the thermostat in 1883. Thermostats regulate temperature. Used with air conditioning systems. Two metals expand at different rates. Mercury switches company founded in 1885. Developed a multi-Zone thermostat in 1884. It was used in egg incubators.

Steam Turbine

Charles Parsons was born in England in 1854. Assisted his father in astronomical work. Learned shipbuilding and weapons manufacturing. He then moved into electrical machinery in 1884. Inspired by contemporary design invented the steam turbine in 1884. Steam turbines convert heat into rotation. Multi-stage turbines are efficient. Power plants produce steam. The blades extract heat and lower the steam’s pressure. Complex blade designs. Makes bulk power productions cheap. Parsons founded a company to manufacture the turbines. Westinyhouse became interested. 

History 5 Lesson 120

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell was born in Scotland in 1847. His mother’s deafness inspired him to study acoustics. Bell thought a German had sent sounds over electrical wires. Bell used a reed system to transmit sound through wires. He received confidence from Joseph Henry in 1878. Patented the telephone in 1876. Telephones allow people to talk to each other remotely. DC voltage supplied for POTs at the center office. He made instantaneous voice communication. Bell made the first phone call in 1876. He put on a public demonstration. The Western Union declined to buy the patent. Founded Bell Telephone companion in 1874. AT and T became the largest corporation in the world.  

Carpet Sweeper   

Melville Bissell was born in New York in 1843. He opened his own grocery store. He then opened a crockery store in 1870 with his wife. Recession struck in 1873. Bissell invented the carpet sweeper in 1876. It was a mechanically powered “vacuum”. Adjustable height for different floor types and better cleaning action. They were quite easy to use. He had trouble getting started. He founded the Bissell company into the sweepers. Bissell died in 1889 and his wife took over operations. Exaned the company overseas. 

Phonograph

Thomas Edison was born in Ohio in 1847. His mother trains hom to be a self-learner. Edison entered the telegraph industry after saving the life of a small child. He wondered if he could record AND playback sound. He invented the phonograph in 1877. Ethes waveforms into dic surfaces. Tone arms pick up bumps and valleys to vibrate membranes (Speaker.) Physical amplitude and frequency converts into electrical amplitude and frequency. Edison first thought businesses would be the target market. Phonograph parlor opened in 1889. Alexander Graham Bell improved the invention. Breakthrough with vinyl records fed to radio popularity. Early artists had to record hundreds or thousands of takes. Records were being sold in pharmacies.  

Motion Pictures

Edward Muggeridge was born in England in 1830. Providentially enlangland in stagecoach accident. He became a photographer in 1866. Auracted interest in Leland Stanford. He invented motion pictures in 1878. He learned that fast-moving images give the appearance of motion, after he took some pictures of a horse loping. Sound and music are symed in the film. One movie= 10,000 feet of film. This allows us to create immersive entertainment. Muybrdige’s work was advertised in Scientific American. Thomas Edison got invaded after meeting with Muybeidge in 1888. Adopted the standard 35mm film and released his kinescope in 1894. Innovators moved to escape Edso’s legal grasp. First Hollywood studio built in 1911. TV put pressure on film in the 1950s.