History 5 Lesson 55

Ether

Crawford Long was born in Gergi in 1815. He spent many years learning to become a doctor. Long moved home to Georgia to practice. Long noted the properties and effects of weather on people. Used either as an anesthetic in 1842. Diethyl ether general anesthetic for surgery. He breathed in vapor from a rag. Signaled the era of pain-free surgery. Side effect:made patients sick. Multiple liam over the invention of anesthesia. Morton, Jakson, and Long all claimed credit. All three fought bitterly which ended in humiliation and tragedy. Morton and wells probably get the idea from Long. History acknowledges Long as the inventor.

Fax Machine

Alexander Bain invented the fax machine, he was born in Scotland in 1811. Apprenticed to a clockmaker. Moved to Lonton. He learned about electromagnetic field theory. Combined clockmaking and electricity to invent a coping machine. Fax machines scan and reproduce documents. Data transmitted as audio signals. Transmits a page every five seconds over telephone lines. Reproduces documents of text or images in seconds. Bain continued to improve his fax machine. Bakewell made a better version that replaced Bain’s pendulums. An Italian developed a machine that became commercially successful around 1861. Competition emerged by 1900, and Elisha Grey created an innovative device in the US.

Steam-Powered Iron Passengers Ships

Isambard Brunel was born in England in 1806. He was educated by his father and school. He apprenticed as a clockmaker. Assisted father Marc with Thames Tunnel. Isambard built bridges and the Great Estern Railroad. Brunel wanted to add steam ships. He invented iron steamships in 1843. Large steam ships transport people and cargo long distances, steam power made their schedules predictable. It used peroellers instead of paddle wheels. It faried lots of passengers at times cheaply. Brunel was renowned throughout England. His ships outperformed rivals. Had grand visions that captured the public’s imagination. Steamship demand increased in 1880a due to immigtation to America. 

Ice Cream Maker

Making ice cream was an labor-intensive process. You had to manually spin and scrape. Nancy Johson invented the hand cranked ice cream maker. Johnson  patented it in 1843. Ice cream: Whipping cream sugar, vanilla extract. Salt lowered the melting point of ice. Ice goes in, outer vat ingredients go in the conister. Blade scrapes the ice cream from the wall. Made the process more efficient. Nancy Johnson sold patent rights.Ice cream store appeared and mass-production facilities emerged by the second half of the 1800s.   

        

History 5 Lesson 50

Electric Clock

Alexander Bain was born in Scotland in 1811, he was an apprentice to a clockmaker. Bain moved to London to sell services. He learned about electromagnetism. He invented the electric clock in 1840. Electricity kept the pendulum moving instead of weight. Electronic oscillators also used to replace pendulums. Synchronous clocks use Go-HZ power frequency. Crystal oscillators can be used to track time. They can be smaller, last longer, and more portable. Bain almost swindled out of his invention. Wheatstom’s attention was thwarted by Bain’s patent application. Parliament awarded Bain “damages”. Inventors after 1840 began developing different kinds of electric clocks. 

Stapler

Samuel Slocum was born in Rhode Island in 1792. Learned carpentry then moved to London to make pins. He invented a machine that manufactured pins. Invented first stapler in 1841. Staples bind multiple sheets of paper together. U-shaped staples are driven through and their ends bend. Staplers used in numerous environments. They can also be used in construction and in medical application. George McGill spent 20 years improving versions of the stapler models in the early in the 1900s. 

Blueprints

John Herchel was born in England in 1792. Published a work on scientific methodology. Escaped to South Africa for a time in 1833. Published drawings of plants. He invented the blueprinting process in 1842. Blueprints are drawings, making it fast and easy to make copies of drawings. Chemically coated paper exposed to eight. Preserved perspectives on copies. Difficult to make changes to blueprints. The cyanotype process was used for drawings copies from  the beginning.  botanists used the technique to form images of plants. Cheaper than hiring drafters to hand copy. Scientists used the process, delinded after the 1940s. 

Grain Elevator 

Joseph Dart was born in Connecticut in 1799. He sold fers to Indian travellers, then moved into grain trading in Buffalo.  He partnered with Robert Dunbar. The two built the first grain elevator in 1844. Grain elevators lift grain up and into a silo. Dart’s was steam powered. About 8 times faster than manual unlading. Quickly unloaded, stored, and dispensed grain. Includes scale for weighing grain. Darts’s elevator built along a river. Word-of-mouth spread, Dumbar built elevators all over the world. Still prominent and important facilities today.      

History 5 Lesson 35

Combine Harvester

Hiram Moore was born in 1801 in New Hampshire. His neighbor, hascal, had  fled the Freemasonry affair. Hascall had a farm, but no workers to reap the harvest. Hascall told Moore about his wife’s dream. Moore developed the combine harvester in 1834, it was a miniature mobile grain factory. A fan and Archimedes screw sifted grain from chaff. Grains were bagged at the top. 30 acres harvested per baile, cost reduction of 80% (From $5 to $1) Moore’s harvester (all-in-one) was really too early, it also had several drawbacks. Received monetare support from Hascall and a US representative. They sent some to California to harvest over 600 acres of wheat (1854) 

   

Solar Compass

Willam Austin Burt was born in 1792,  he developed interest in nautical navigation. His life’s calling: was to help mankind, He was the inventor of several devices. Burt became a surveyor in the US government. Invented solar compass to solve compass to solve problems of magnetic interference in 1835. The solar compass didn’t rely on earth’s magnetic field. It was a complete instrument with movable parts to determine position. Burt won an award from the Franklin Institute. He made continual improvements,  he demonstrated at world’s fair in London. The US government made it a standard tool for it’s surveyors. 

  Propeller

Franacis Pettit Smith was born in England in 1808. He became a farming apprentice, he was fascinated by boats as a child. Smith grew interested in how boats were powered. He invented the screw propeller in 1835. The screw propeller had advantages over the  paddle wheel. It was lighter and more efficient. It helped ships rock less. Made boats are easier to navigate. Propeller converts rotational motion into “thrust” (linear motion) Another inventor patented a propeller 6 weeks after Smith did. He Began advertising to the Navy. His rival’s model didn’t impress the Navy. Smith convinced Brunell to use the propeller instead of the paddlewheel. 

       Mechanical Computer 

Charles Babbage was born in London in 1791. He became self-taught in math. Books of logarithms and data tables were vital in many fields. They contained errors, and Babbage wanted to fix that. He designed his “Analytical Engine” in 1835. Expanded capabilities beyond computing logarithms. He was programmable using punched cards. He did most actions of modern computers (loops, branches) It even had date memory. It would print tables automatically and accurately. Babbage never built the machine, Ada Lovelace was fascinated by the concept. She became the world’s first programmer. Babbage’s machine never received much publicity during his lifetime.     

History 5 Lesson 30

So before you read the lesson thingy, I’m letting you guys know that there is only pictures on the first invention and the last invention, but that’s only because I couldn’t find good pictures of the other inventions.

Platform Scale 

Thaddeus Fairbanks was born in 1796 in Massachusetts. Built an iron foundry in 1823. His brother Erstus came to work for him. Thaddeus solved the problem of too large counterweights. It nuented the platform scale in 1830. Platform scales measure large and heavy objects.For example, there are big enough scales to weigh show steers. They take advantage of the advantage offered by levers. They were functional, there were no cranes required and they were very accurate. Demand for the scale was strong, and industrialization continued stimulating demand. Fairbanks began selling the scales overseas. Sales slowed during the Civil war. By the 1860s, the scales were in numerous industries. 

Here are some pictures of a cattle scale. As you can see there are many different versions of the cattle scale.

Railroad T-Rail

Robert Stevens was born in New Jersey in 1787, he worked with his father to build steamships. Stevens improved various steamship designs and became president of the railroad company in 1830. He invented the t-rail in 1831. The flanged t-rail: upside down “T”. The heavier it is the greater load it can carry. It’s strength comes from the  similarity to the I-beam. Railroad ties are spaced 18 inches apart, til plates fasted the rails to the ties. Sevens rail became an American standard. It was sturdy and easy to install. Charles vignoles introduced the design to Britain. It became known there as “vignoles” rail. 

Multi Loop Magnet 

Joseph Henry was born in New York in 1797. He became interested in science at 16. He also became a state engineer after college. Henry became a science professor in 1826 at age 29. He invented multiple- coil magnets in 1831. Non-insulated wire shorts out when touching each other. Henry could squeeze coils close to each other. N= loop, I=current, L=length. How to make a strong B? Henry built the world’s strongest electromagnet for Yale. Created early-version of motor, Smithsonian Institution founded in 1846. Increase and diffuse knowledge. 

Mechanical Reaper

Cyrus McCormick was born in Virginia in 1809. Cyrus’s father, Robert spent years trying to develop a mechanical reaper. Cyrus took inspiration from a British version. McCormick had a calling, his reaper was patented in 1834. McCormick’s reaper was pulled by horses. A “Corraige” that had a moving knife to cut the wheat. They tossed off to the side. The reaper reduced limits on farming output, this increased profit potential. McCormick’s reaper was slow to speak at first. Patent wars hindered its adoption too. He lopt the patent war, and decided to innovate. He implemented innovative marketing campaigns. Offered money-back guarantees to midwest farmers.         

History 5 Lesson 25

Microphone

Charles Wheatstome was born in England in 1802. He invested in Valta’s book, he built his own battery for experimentation. He learned that sound is caused by vibrating pressure waves. He invented the microphone in 1827. The microphone converts sound  into electricity. It’s the same thing with the speakers in reverse. There’s a diaphragm attached to the coil. Magnet induces current in an oscillating wire coil. Electric signals amplified by other circuits. Wheatstone’s efforts led to modern microphone. Began working on electric telegraph in 1835. This led to the telephone in the 1870s. Thomas Edison invented the “carbon microphone” in 1977. 

Typewriter

William Austin Burt was born in Massachusetts in 1792. He became fascinated with sailing. He was devoted to his studies to suinces to help people. Burt invented astronomical instruments. He invented the typewriter in 1829. Typewriters imprinted neat writing into paper. Later models reduced jamming. People can type faster than they can write. Typewriters produced neat documents on demand. Burt’s typewriter wasn’t successful in his life to come up with a workable solution. The hansen writing ball was invented in 1865 Sholes and Glidden released the modern design in 1874. He had some drawbacks, writers began using them. 

Braille Reading System

Louis Braille was born in France in 1809. HE played in his father’s leather shop and he damaged his eye, the infection spread to his other eye. He became a very good student. He attended school for the blind. Braille wanted to help blind people become literate. He learned of the Barvier’s system and he devised his own in 1824. Braille allows blind people to read at standard speeds.  Brallie’s system improved reading speed over Barber’s. There are six raised dots in different patterns. Blind people can read proficiently and can access deep pools of knowledge. Founder of a school for blind invented his own reading system. Braille began publishing books on his new system in the 1830s. Resistance to Braille’s method because of loyalty to the old one. Braille’s students began spreading Braille’s system after his death.

Sewing Machine

Bartholemy Thimonsier was born in France in 1829. He opened a factory to produce military uniforms for the military. His factory survived for almost 200 years.Sewing machines stitch fabric together mechanically. The lock stitch is its “Secret”. It forms a very strong connection. The sewing machine makes it easy and fast to make it quality. Thimonmter’s machine spread throughout France, American Walter Hunt invented one in 1832. John fisher made a more useful model in 1846. Isaac Singer became successful in the business of selling sewing matches in 1856.             

     

History 5 Lesson 20

Portland Cement

Joseph Aspdin was born in England in 1778, he began experimenting with cement formulas. He patented his “portland cement” in 1929. Portland cement is most commonly used in the world. Cement binds the different ingredients together, concrete is strong under compression and versatile. They are good for foundation and walls. It can be reinforced for strength. William Aspdin’s cement formula was different from his father’s. It became immediately popular in London, others began figuring out Joseph’s formula. It was counter intuitive at the time. Most concrete used Portland cement in the US by the 1930s. Ferromagnetic materials produce strong magnetic fields. Electromagnets are artificial magnets, iron is easily magnetized, They were simple to make. Electromagnets can create strong or weak magnetic fields with the touch of a button. The electromagnetic connection captivated people. Stungean promoted magnetism in scientific journals. Joseph Henry improved Sturgeon’s magnet in 1830.

Passenger Rail

George Stephenson was born in Britain in 1781. He experienced a family tragedy. He became an expert in steam engines. Stephenson built his first locomotive in 1814. The first passenger car ran in 1814, passenger cars were pulled by locomotives. They come in a variety of types. Passenger trains serve different needs, they carry people quickly over long distances. Stephenson continued developing the industry. He built a major railway in 1830. Stephenson consulted with American entrepreneurs.

Matches

John Walker was born in 1781. Walker couldn’t handle the good of surgery. Walker became a pharmacist, he understood the weakness of chemical matches. Insight: combination of accident and experience. Matches start fires quickly, the match head contains chemical igniters. Safety matches are most common, the chemicals in the head combine with phosphorus on the strifing pad. Matches produce fire “on demand”. Walker sold match boxes for shilling. He named the “congreves”. Already well off, Walker didn’t patent the matches. Others improved the match after Walker. John Pusey invented the matchbook in 1896. Companies advertised their products on.          

History 5 Lesson 15

Pencil

Earliest forms of writing were on clay tables, Greeks and Romans used wax tables they were erasable. A unique graphite mine was discovered in England in 1500 AD. England gained a monopoly over pencil-making. Nicolas Jacques Conte invented the modern pencil as an alternative to Britain’s. Pencils are graphite rods encased in wood. Pencils make durable markings. They are cheap to make and use. Pencils offered benefits to artists. Conte pencil dominated Europe. But it didn’t spread to America. John Thoreacu manufactured pencils in Massachusetts in the 1820s. His pencils were inferior to Conte’s. John’s son, Henry independently invented the same pencil that Conte had 15 years earlier.

Stethoscope

Rene Lannec was born in 1781 in France, he was sick as a child. He trained under great French doctors, he had several interests related to sound. He invented the stethoscope in a Eureka! Moment in 1816. Stethoscopes let us listen to sounds inside our body. The chest piece captures a sound wave. They traveled through air tubes into our eardrums. Electronics enhanced stethoscope features. We can listen to heartbeat, blood flow, and lunges. Laenec used his stethoscope with autopsies. He published a book in 1819. Lanennec wasn’t roo critical of the existing (inferior) methods. His invention spread quickly throughout Europe. The modern design emerged in 1852. 

Tunneling Shield

Marc Isambard Buried, was born in France in 1769, he fled to France to escape the murderous reign of Robespierre. Gained engineering experience in New York City in 1793. He returned to England in 1799 to mass produce pulley blocks. He patented a tunneling shield in 1818. Tunneling shields protect men digging tunnels. Brunel Sank, an acces ring into earth. The Shield contained worker compartments. He excavated 8-12 feet per week. He Negotiated with Russia For bailout. Brunel leveraged competition with Russia to escape British debtor’s prison. Began digging the Thames tunnel in 1825. Financial trouble struck by 1828. 

Paved Roads 

John McAdam was born in Scotland in America as a prize agent. He returned to Scotland and got involved in road-building. McAdam began experimenting with new roads. He invented the Macadam paved road in 1816. MacAdam is a paved road made up of layers of gravel. 30 feet wide, 3-inch rise towards the center. The stones were crushed manually with hammers. More durable and economic than other kinds. The macadam road spread quickly. They rooted out corruption because they were so quick to build. McAdam’s promoted his design through a book. Books spread ideas rapidly, The first macadam road completed in America in 1823.           

History 5 Lesson 10

Vapor-Compression Theory

William Cullen experimented with refrigeration in 1755. Ben Franklin investigated vapor cooling in 1758. American inventor Oliver Evans made a breakthrough, he described Vapor-compression refrigeration theory in 1805. Evaporation: Also heat, cools environment, condensing releases heat, warms environment. Electricity performs the work, it creates cold environments, prevents food from spoiling quickly. Evens developed the theory but  didn’t build a device. John Gorrie built one in 1842 for medical purposes. James Harrison built an ice machine for business in 1856. Thaddeus Lowe installed a refrigeration unit on food ships in 189.

Oliver Evans

Oliverer Evans was born in Delaware in 1755. He defused invention to donate repetitive tasks. He built his own mill with his brothers as a “lab” (1783).  He Adopted ancient technology to modern processes. Evans was ahead of his time. Did some of the first work with high-pressure steam engines in America. Opened a foundry that developed liveres metal working experience. Connected to Roloert Fulton steamboat inventor. Evans launched several marketing campaigns. He had a breakthrough whan ha was over a prominent Quaker family. That Mall reveals the massive savings Evan’s system produced. George Washington installed the system at home. Evans published two popular books. 

Percussion Ignition

John Forsyth was born in Scotland in 1769, he became a presbyterion minister. Forsyth enjoyed duck hunting. The shotguns weren’t stealthy enough. Forsyth invented percussion cap ignition in 1807. Percussion ignition relies on vibration. Percussion filled with mercury fulminate. It is channeled into a barrel. Friction creates a small explosion which invites powder. Allowed guns to fire in rain and fired faster. Forsyth opened a gun manufacturing shop. He advertised the benefits of his gun to wealthy sportsmen. Forsyth struggled to stay in business because of patient lawsuits. An American teh system in 1814. Within 30 year in use by the military. 

Canning Process

Nicolas Apport chef was born in 1749. Experimented with preserving different foods. He used glass bottles. He became mivated in 195 by award money. Built a bottling factory in 1810. Can,lid, ring, boiling water. Boiling food kills bacteria. Canning preserves nutritional value of food over time. Process was invented and we understood how it worked. Tin cans replaced glass jars by 1812. Military was the primary market for canned food initially. Sailors and navies also used it. Demand increased as the population expanded. High-quality canned food was sold to the public following the end of wars  

History 4 Lesson 180

Morphine

Chemistry began as alchemy, Alchemists has formula for secret opium elixirs. The formula was rediscovered in the 1700s. Surtuner apprenticed for a pharmacist, he invented morphine from opium. Morphine comes from purifying opium, it pretends to be an endorphin. Which blocks pain signals. Morphine is one of the most potent pain relievers. It was useful for a variety of problems, it was named after the Greek God of dreams. A famous chemist finally noticed one of them, he did experiments on dogs. Then he tested it on himself and others.

Jacquard Loom

Bastille Bouchon, was the son of an organ maker. They used cam to make the pipes sing (the organ pipes). Bouchon applied the cam patterns to the loom in 1725. Vaucanson improved this design by adding a cylinder. Jacquard combined these previous attempts 50 years later. Jacquard loom automatically produces complex woven patterns. “Programmable” cards create the thread patterns. The loom reduced labor costs and made expensive clothes cheaper. The loom was invented in 1804, but took some time to catch on. Jacquard was handsomely rewarded by Napoleon. Factory owners installed the Jacquard loom.

Inventions and Worldview

Different cultures have different world views. The compass had different effects in different cultures. Their worldviews dictated it’s usage. Their worldviews have five parts:

  1. God
  2. Man
  3. Ethics
  4. Judgment
  5.  Time

The Egyptians

Everything in the cosmos is connected through Ma’at, most people had to serve the Pharaoh. The rules of Ma’at required people to be social. Judgment: based on how life was lived. Times were cyclical repeating creation and fall, over and over. 

The Chinese

All of the cosmos were connected: “Tao”. People were little copies of the universe. The rules of life weren’t logical. Alchemy was used to altinn “enlightenment” . Their time was cyclical: flowing like a river.  

The Greeks

They believed in tons of gods, the elite would lead the commoners into a better life. The goal was to live a virtuous life, worshiping family gods kept them alive in the afterlife. History was cyclical and time eternal.

Western Worldview

God is separate from his creation. Man was made in the image of God. Man obey God’s Bible-revealed commandments. Christ returns on judgment day. Time and history will and after all Christ enemies are conquered.

Inventions and Patterns

The Eureka Moment

The “ah ha!” moment. John Napier developed a critical mental image. Joseph Priestley investigated bee vats. Edward Jenner noticed that milkmaids don’t get smallpox.

Open to new ideas

Breaking away from established opinions. Vesalius taught human anatomy differently than all other professions, He noticed when Galen’s predictions were wrong. He realized Galen never used a human corpse. Kepler’s breakthrough was trying an ellipse instead of a circle, he assumed others had already tried it. Dr. Mary Schweitzer discovered blood vessels in “fossilized” dinosaur bones. Other scientists simply assumed that was impossible. Their world view prevented them from making it impossible. Their worldview presented them from making this discovery. 

Adversity

The heliocentric theory was resisted by church authority. It contradicted Aristotle’s philosophy. Vesalius’ anatomy contradicted Galen’s anatomy. He was cocked and faced ridiculous arguments from influential authorities. Mar Schweitzer’s discovery was a blessing and a curse. She was shunned initially by her peers. Labor- saving inventions attracted angry mob violence. The resistance and adversity didn’t stop the inventors.

Labor- Saving Devices

Inventions make our labor more efficient. A series of inventions improved fabric production overtime. 

History 4 lesson 175

Smallpox Vaccine

“Inoculation” was around since the 1500s in the ottoman Empire. British woman brought the concept to Europe around 1725. Edward Jenner, born in 1749, he noticed something peculiar about milkmaids, Jenner began to vaccinate people with the cowpox virus. “Vaccine” is a cure of a disease. They are generally a weakened version of the actual disease. “Vaccine” comes from the cowpox virus (vaccna- means “from the cow”) Jenner wasn’t the first to make the connection between cowpox and smallpox but no one else made attempts to publicize the knowledge, and Jenner did. He conducted numerous trials to convince the Royal Society. The vaccine was introduced in America in the 1780s. Administered in most nations by 1810.

Voltaic Pile

Vlta was born in Italy in 1745, he was interested in electricity and the writing of Ben Franklin. He invented the Volta pistol. Luigi Galvani made frogs legs twitch. Volta built the pile to refute falvanis theory. The Voltaic pile delivered continuous electric current. Alternating stacks of copper and zinc plates and electrolyte. Batteries have (+) and (-) terminals Electrons flow from (-) to 9 (+). Positive ions accumulate on zinc. Loose electrons recombine with positive ions. Chemical reactions produce the electricity. Volta submitted a paper to the Royal Society. 

Arc Light 

Humphrey Davy was born in England in 1778. He became interested in chemistry and electricity. Davy experimented with laughing gas. Built his own voltaic piles to do experiments. Invented the arc light using very strong batteries. The arc light is extremely bright, an arc jumps between the two rods. Electrons flow through the air when the electric field is strong enough the electricity consumes the carbon rods. The light is bright enough to light up large buildings and streets. It didn’t take off quickly. The advancement of lighthouse technology created a market for the arc light. Limelight was invented in the 1820s. It could be used in lighthouses but how to transport the gas? Genervators by 1875 were built to power the arc light. 

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

John Dalton was born in England in 1766. He loved education, he became a professor and a private tutor. He was fascinated by meteorology. Devised atomic theory after years of study and experimentation. He founded upon two laws. 1- All matter is made of atoms. 2- Atoms of the same element are the same. 3- Compounds are combinations of multiple elements. 4- Chemical reactions are elements being rearranged. Theory became the new universal language of chemistry. Dalton published his theory in a book (1808) Protected it to his friends in letters. He joined prominent scientific societies. Continued to tutor and teach his theory to others.