History 5 Lesson 90


A British Comedian played a joke in 1810. The Postcard concept appeared in 1861 in the US. John P. Charlton patented the idea.Had help from Hymen Lipman inventor of pencil eraser. The postcard is simple and useful. People can send cheap messages. They provide a personal touch. Economical for average people in the early days of communications Lipman’s creativity helped sell the postcard. Spread to Englanf in 1870. The Eiffel Tower was a popular postcard picture. The US revoked rights of others to sell postcards in 1873 but revered in 1898. Golden age of postcards from 1907-1915. 

Gatling Gun 

Richard Gatling was born in North Carolina in 1818. He was a store owner, doctor and inventor. The Civil War provided his source of inspiration. Wanted to save lives by reducing soldiers needed on the battlefield. Invented Gatling Gun in 1861. It’s a raid-fire-multi-barrel gun. The hand crank rotated barrels to keep them cool. Firing sequence synchronized by cams. It had gravity-fed paper cartridges. Modern Gatling guns fire 4,000 rounds per minute. Galting had some setbacks initially.  Gatling demonstrated the gun to the army in live combat. Gradually increased rate of fire. Armies all over the world purchased these guns.


Fredrick Walton was born in England in 1834. He noticed that linseed oil dried into “runny” consistency. Walton experimented with drying the linseed oil faster than normal. Patented linoleum in 1863. Linoleum is a durable floor covering. Can be imprinted with decorative designs. Made out of lisseal oil combined with saw dust and cork. Walter had trouble generating sales initially. He had to develop marking to overcome his competition. Cheap imitators appeared by 1871. Walter expanded his market internationally. His name “Linoleum Became a generic trademark.

      Ratcheting Wrench

   The socket was not brand new in the 1800s. Ancient cultures used sockets to fasten tools together. First wrench patented in 1835. J.J. Richardson patented ratcheting wrench in 1863. The ratchet only allows motion in one direction. Socket heads plug into cylinders. It allows very quick tightening. It was easier to get into small spaces. It can quickly swap sires. Useful in making torque wrenches. Richardson patented his wrench through scientific American. It was then advertised in the magazine. This was a specialized highly targeted audience.

History 5 Lesson 85

Ironing board 

Heavy stones were used to smooth clothes. The Chinese  heated their irons. Fashions became more elaborate in the 1100s. They required hot ironing. People discovered the flat surfaces work best when ironing. They used the kitchen table. Then the ironing board was invented in 1858. Unwrinkled clothes make a good impression. Manual workers have wrinkled clothes. Ironing: Physical and chemical process. Padded-foam surface for absorbing heat. Designed sharp makers ironing different kinds of clothes convenient  The ironing board was improved. Mrs. Potts invented improved iron in 1871. The electric iron arrived in 1892. The ironing board sales benefited from the electric iron. 

Internal Combustion Engine

Erienne Lenoirwas born in Belgium in 1822. He became interested in electricity. Used the sparkes to invent the internal combustion engine in 1859. Uses small controlled explosions to drive pistons. Cams play an important role. Comes control valve tuning. Intake compression power exhaust. Comes control valve timing. The engine was used in small stationary applications. Nickola Otto invented the 4-stroke engine (Otto cycle). It was released in 1876. Ford was founded in 1901.

Lever-Action Repeating Rifle  

Benjamin Tyler Henry was born in New Hampshire in 1821. Worked for smith and Wesson. They developed the Hunt’s lever-action rifle concept. Henry went to work for Mr.Winchester. Invented the lever-action repeating rifle in 1860. Lever-action rear-loading cartridge rifle. Held 16 .44 caliber rounds. The lever controlled carriage flow. Could fire several shots rapidly at close range. Some were used in the Civil War, but Springfield dominated. Union soldiers used their own money to buy the Henry rifle. Winchester developed the Winchester rifle to avoid litigation with Henry. The rifle became famously known as “the gun that won the west”. 

Twist Drill  

Rotary tools have long been used to bore holes. Bow drill helps make fire. Steven A Morse invented the twist drill in 1861. Drill bits are cutting tools. It lifts and removes the debris as it turns. Bits are optimized for the material they cut. Wood bits and metal bits have different tips, the most common bit used today. Morse moved to Massachusetts Built a two-story factory in 1866. Produced twist bits for numerous industries. Sold them all over the world.               

History 5 Lesson 80

Salt and Pepper Shakers 

Elaborate shakers were made of precious metals, before the shakers, people pinched or scooped with a spoon. Salt and pepper shakers were invented in 1858 by John Mason. Shakers are basic for seasoning food. It’s basically a glass jar with a screw-top lid. Lids contain different sized holes, they are easily refilled. It’s a sanitary way of sharing the seasonings. It became popular after Mason’s patent expired. Salt was difficult to shake out. Motor salt improved the formula in the 1920s. Ceramic shakers were sold during the Great Depression Diners began stockting them. 

    Mason Jar

Nicolas Appert invented the canning process. Before the mason jar they used champagne bottles, they canned all sorts of foods. Intended to supply Napoleon’s army. Canning became important to American families in 1830s. John Mason invented mason jar in 1858. A glass jar with screw top and a metal lid. The glass was strong, cheap soda-lime glass. Primarily used for home canning. Healing the food kills barterical and allows vacuum seals to form. Families can enjoy out-of-season food. Mostly used for canning fruits and jellies at first. But began to replace older methods of preservation. Popular among westward moving American selters. His patent expired in 1879, which led to mass production. Others made incremental improvements. 

Pencil Eraser

Two men discovered a rubber eraser in 1770. Priestly gave “rubber” its name. Edwards Nairne was a pro life English inventor. Accidentally discovered rubber is a good eraser. Hyman Lipman combined pencil and eraser in 1858. Erasers quickly remove pencil marks. Stored in a cylindrical, metal barrel, on the end of a pencil. Works by a combination of chemical and physical action. Modern erasers are made of various materials. Conveniently attached to pencils. Lipman sold his patent for $100,000. Richendorfer then sued Faber. The Supreme court ruled against Rickendorfer. A simple idea that was not obvious. The lawsuit helped make the invention visible. Most pencils and erasers by 1920s. 

Twine Binder

John Applesby was born in New York in 1840. John grew up on a farm while going to school. McCormick’s reaper was a big improvement to Appleby’s farming life. Applby invent twine binder 1858. Perfectly complemented reaping machines. Twine was effective but safe binding material. Mechanically knots automatically. Saved a lot of time and reduced field labor. Development stalled out during the civil war. Appleby honed his inventive skills on the battlefield. Received renewed investment interest in 1867 following a public demonstration. Built a manufacturing factory in 1872. Partnered with deering and McCormick, who licensed his patent.            

English 6 Lesson 85

I have no desire to travel around the world. But I would travel around to places in the United States, while being horseback. I would have to plan ahead, that way I could find a place for my horse, and a hotel for me. If I can’t get a hotel, I probably wouldn’t mind sleeping with my horse. There would be no point in bringing my phone, so I’d just leave it at home. I’d need a good horse who would not spook at the bags I’d put on my saddle that would hold my food, water, and most importantly clothes. I live in New Mexico, I’d travel to Arizona, and stay there for a few days. Then I’d go to Nevada, stay there for a few days at whatever town that I stop in, and maybe go to California. I’d travel through Oregon and Idaho,I wouldn’t stop just to be a tourist. I would only travel through there so I could go to Wyoming. Then I’d go to Colorado, and Kansas. I’d travel to Kansas, Missouri, and Tennessee. I might go to Virginia. For my route back I would go through North Carolina, then Georgia, to Mississippi. I would go through Arkansas and then Texas, and back home in New Mexico.   While there are some places other than the U.S I would like  to visit. I feel that this trip through the U.S on a horse sounds like more fun.    

History 5 Lesson 75

Condensed Milk 

Gail Borden Jr. was born in New York in 1801. He published a newspaper during the Texas Revolution. His wife died of yellow fever in 1844. He witnessed children dying because of bad milk. Borden invented condensed milk in 1856. Condensed and sweetened cow’s milk. Microorganisms cause milk to spoil. Heating the milk prevents spoilage. Sugar is added as a preservative. Useful in recipes and stores for a long time. Borden’s milk was known for its high quality. High demand from the word after the war ended. Production ramped up from competitors leading to a price crash. 

Sleeping Car 

Goerge Pullman was born in New York in 1831. He helped father move houses along the eire canal. He put his engineering skills to use in Chicago. Raised foundations out of the swamp. He invented the sleeping car in 1865. Provides living space on long train rides. Beds folded up during the daytime. On-board porters served customers. It was basically a hotel on wheels. It was a comfortable way to pass the time. Pullman took advantage of the one-time opportunity. 

Toilet Paper 

China invented lots of things early on. Including toilet paper. The Romans used a sponge on a stick, the American colonists used corn cobs. Joseph Gayetty invented toilet paper in 1857. Toilet paper is made of a combination of hard and soft wood fibers factories convert raw pulp into toilet paper. Gayetty marketed his paper beginning in 1857. Targeted customers with itchy pain. 

Washing Machine 

Washing clothes was time consuming. Women had to haul lots of water. Inventors began focusing on the process in the 18th century. Washboard made it easier to hand-wash clothes. Hamilton Smith invented the washing machine in 1858. Washing machines clean soiled clothes. Water and soap loosen the dirt. Agitators scrub the clothes. The washing machine saved a lot of time. Smith’s machine didn’t use electricity but it was easier than a washboard. An English machine was demonstrated at the World’s fair in 1862. Electricity applied in 1904. A million units sold annually by 1928.

History 5 Lesson 70

Safety Elevator

Elisha Otis was born in Vermont in 1811. He moved his family to a river in town. He built a grist mill. Otis owned his own business but it failed. Then he invented the safety elevator in 1852. Elevators transport people and supplies up and down. There was a cab lifted by steel cable and balanced with countwightes. What happens if the cable snaps? The elevator used a backup ratchet system. Farliest elevators required manual lifting. Despite the apartment benefits, it was slow to sell initially. Otis rented space at the World’s Fair in 1853. He put on a dramatic demonstration. And the sales became steady. 


Alexander Wood was born in Scotland in 1817. Wood was trained in classical curriculum. He attained a medical degree at Edinburgh. He invented the syringe in 1853, he was inspired by bee stingers. Doctors use hypodermic syringes. It’s basically a “reciprocating pump”.  The syringe can precisely control the amount injected. It’s also used outside the medical industry. Even in industrial settings. It was popularized in France by a doctor. The one-Handed syringe was invented in 1899, then the glass syringe was invented in 1946, and finally disposable syringe in 1949. 

The Bessemer Process 

Henry Bessemer was born in England in 1813. He was a  prolific inventor like his dad. He grew interested in weapons due to the  Crimlam War. Napoleon III wanted more steel for better weapons. Bessemer steel-making process in 1855. The Bessemer process converts pig iron into steel. It forces hot air through molten iron to remove impurity. Steel contains 2% carbon. Made large-scale steel production feasible. This recused it’s price and made it affordable in large jobs. Bessemer licensed his patent to five English ironmakers. They couldn’t understand his process, so he opened his own factory. His process then spread to America in 1862. 

Egg- Beater

Ancient Egyptians invented a baking oven. It grew from family labor to profession in Rome. Guilds arose and fasted through the Middle Ages. The mixer was invented in 1856 by Ralph collier. Egg-beater is a kitchen mixer. It automates the repetitive nature of mixing. It’s a handheld device that makes mixing ingredients much easier.Electric mixers grew up out of hand mixers. Other inventors saw collier;s patent and pursued their own. An 1859 model was sold to a major company. Another innovative mixer followed the same pattern in 1870. Herbert John invented the KitchenAid mixer in 1918.

History 5 Lesson 65


Mining was important but hazardous. Early jackhammers were inspired by steam engines, developed by 1806. Jonathan couch invented the modern jackhammer in 1848. Jackhammers are “hammer drills”. The bit is pushed up and down pressurized air. The modern jackhammer can run on electricity. Steam engines couldn’t be installed inside mines. They produce hazardous gases. Couch’s assistant, Foul innovate the jackhammer to use compressed air. It could also be used to ventilate the mines. Demonstrations were performed to investors. 

Pin-Tumbler Lock

Linus Yale Sr. was born in Connecticut in 1797. He opened a lock shop in his 46’s. Yale invented pin-tumbler lock in 1843. Lock contains pins in a cylindrical drum. The key lines up pins to rotate the cylinder. Each pin has two parts. These locks are harder to pick than the old locks. They are easy to re-key. Linus Yale Jr. continued his father’s work. Became a mechanical engineer. His locks received widespread acclaim. He demonstrated them at the World’s Fair. Advertised 9 important benefits Yale exposed vulnerabilities in competitor’s locks.

Safety Pin

Walter Hunt was born in New York in 1796. Hunt invented a version of the sewing machine in 1832. He had experience with needles and the sewing industry. He invented the safety pin in 1849. Safety pins are simple folding needles. Pins have sharp heads that can stick you. The safety pin guards the head within a clasp. They fasten fabric and other materials together. Hunt made 27 times his debt level when he sold the patent. They were simple to manufacture. They were advertised to nurses and housewives for diapers and clothes. They were acquired by a large chemical company.


Leon Foucult was born in Paris in 1819. He became interested in Physics. He helped discover the speed of light. He did an experiment to prove rotation of earth in 1851. He invented the gyroscope in 1852. Gyroscope: spinning disc set inside gimbals. It seemed to defy laws of physics (they don’t). The gimbals allow rotation. They resist forces that try to turn them. Gyroscopes create stability. Foucult used gyroscopes to prove earth’s rotation. Electric motors applied in the 1860s. Gyroscopic compass built in 1904.          

History 5 Lesson 60

Rotary Printing Press

Riched Hoe was born in New York in 1812. He became  president of father’s press manufacturing company when he was 21. Invented the rotary press in 1843.The rotary press uses rotating drums. This allows a “Never-ending” stream of paper to be printed. The type is on the cylinder face. Hundreds of feet of paper can be loaded into the machine. In the 1820s “Newspapers” were published by political parties. Abell founded the Baltimore Sun in 1837. Abell was quick to adopt new technologies. The sun and other New York papers increased their circulation because of the printer.  The middle class began relying on newspapers for daily news. 


Abraham Gesmer was born in Canada in 1787, moved to England to become a doctor. Became interested in geology after meeting Charles Lyell. He practiced medicine and geology back home in Canada. He invented kerosene in 1846. Kerosene is a fuel and generalized trademark. Derived from petroleum. It was used for heaters, lamps, and jet fuel. Gerner formed a company in 1850 to sell lamps and oil. Expanded to the Northeastern US in 1854. An American inventor was competing with an inferior product. Meantulile Samuel Kier founded American petroleum industry. Supplies circumvented eatens by making kerosene from petroleum.


Ignaz Semmeluies was in 1818 in Budapest. He went into abstetics. Semmeluies worked for Vienna General Hospital. Decided to solve the problem of the two clinies, he observed and recorded. Breakthrough after friend’s death. Then he had the Eureka moment. He invented antiseptic use in 1847. Antiseptics kills germs. Germs cause infection, and antiseptics lowers death rates. Semmeluies reduced mortality from 18% to 2% in 1 month. His students spread the word, the establishment rejected. Repeated success in Budapest in 1852. He wrote letters to doctors across Europe. Pasteur’s germ theory reduced resistance later. Critice innored data. Conflicting theories of knowledge. 

 Gas Mask

Ancient Cultures used masks. A prussian intro created a mask for mining in 1799. Lewis P. Haslett invented the prototype of the modern version in 1847. It was probably intended to be used by Kentucky coal miners. Gas masks protect lungs from polluted air. Forces air through a filter. Particles and chemical vapors. Separate oxygen tanks may be required. Enable work in hazardous environments. Germans launched chemical weapons in World War 1.  A canadaion doctor invented a gas mask the troops. An american inventor created a mask too for American troops. The modern gas mask was invented in 1944. 

History 5 Lesson 55


Crawford Long was born in Gergi in 1815. He spent many years learning to become a doctor. Long moved home to Georgia to practice. Long noted the properties and effects of weather on people. Used either as an anesthetic in 1842. Diethyl ether general anesthetic for surgery. He breathed in vapor from a rag. Signaled the era of pain-free surgery. Side effect:made patients sick. Multiple liam over the invention of anesthesia. Morton, Jakson, and Long all claimed credit. All three fought bitterly which ended in humiliation and tragedy. Morton and wells probably get the idea from Long. History acknowledges Long as the inventor.

Fax Machine

Alexander Bain invented the fax machine, he was born in Scotland in 1811. Apprenticed to a clockmaker. Moved to Lonton. He learned about electromagnetic field theory. Combined clockmaking and electricity to invent a coping machine. Fax machines scan and reproduce documents. Data transmitted as audio signals. Transmits a page every five seconds over telephone lines. Reproduces documents of text or images in seconds. Bain continued to improve his fax machine. Bakewell made a better version that replaced Bain’s pendulums. An Italian developed a machine that became commercially successful around 1861. Competition emerged by 1900, and Elisha Grey created an innovative device in the US.

Steam-Powered Iron Passengers Ships

Isambard Brunel was born in England in 1806. He was educated by his father and school. He apprenticed as a clockmaker. Assisted father Marc with Thames Tunnel. Isambard built bridges and the Great Estern Railroad. Brunel wanted to add steam ships. He invented iron steamships in 1843. Large steam ships transport people and cargo long distances, steam power made their schedules predictable. It used peroellers instead of paddle wheels. It faried lots of passengers at times cheaply. Brunel was renowned throughout England. His ships outperformed rivals. Had grand visions that captured the public’s imagination. Steamship demand increased in 1880a due to immigtation to America. 

Ice Cream Maker

Making ice cream was an labor-intensive process. You had to manually spin and scrape. Nancy Johson invented the hand cranked ice cream maker. Johnson  patented it in 1843. Ice cream: Whipping cream sugar, vanilla extract. Salt lowered the melting point of ice. Ice goes in, outer vat ingredients go in the conister. Blade scrapes the ice cream from the wall. Made the process more efficient. Nancy Johnson sold patent rights.Ice cream store appeared and mass-production facilities emerged by the second half of the 1800s.   


History 5 Lesson 50

Electric Clock

Alexander Bain was born in Scotland in 1811, he was an apprentice to a clockmaker. Bain moved to London to sell services. He learned about electromagnetism. He invented the electric clock in 1840. Electricity kept the pendulum moving instead of weight. Electronic oscillators also used to replace pendulums. Synchronous clocks use Go-HZ power frequency. Crystal oscillators can be used to track time. They can be smaller, last longer, and more portable. Bain almost swindled out of his invention. Wheatstom’s attention was thwarted by Bain’s patent application. Parliament awarded Bain “damages”. Inventors after 1840 began developing different kinds of electric clocks. 


Samuel Slocum was born in Rhode Island in 1792. Learned carpentry then moved to London to make pins. He invented a machine that manufactured pins. Invented first stapler in 1841. Staples bind multiple sheets of paper together. U-shaped staples are driven through and their ends bend. Staplers used in numerous environments. They can also be used in construction and in medical application. George McGill spent 20 years improving versions of the stapler models in the early in the 1900s. 


John Herchel was born in England in 1792. Published a work on scientific methodology. Escaped to South Africa for a time in 1833. Published drawings of plants. He invented the blueprinting process in 1842. Blueprints are drawings, making it fast and easy to make copies of drawings. Chemically coated paper exposed to eight. Preserved perspectives on copies. Difficult to make changes to blueprints. The cyanotype process was used for drawings copies from  the beginning.  botanists used the technique to form images of plants. Cheaper than hiring drafters to hand copy. Scientists used the process, delinded after the 1940s. 

Grain Elevator 

Joseph Dart was born in Connecticut in 1799. He sold fers to Indian travellers, then moved into grain trading in Buffalo.  He partnered with Robert Dunbar. The two built the first grain elevator in 1844. Grain elevators lift grain up and into a silo. Dart’s was steam powered. About 8 times faster than manual unlading. Quickly unloaded, stored, and dispensed grain. Includes scale for weighing grain. Darts’s elevator built along a river. Word-of-mouth spread, Dumbar built elevators all over the world. Still prominent and important facilities today.