History 4 lesson 150


Ideas for parachutes appeared during the Renaissance. Da Vinci drew a working parachute design in 1485. Lois-Sebastien Lenormand invented the first parachute in 1783. He was a French scientist, he was inspired by watching a tight-rope walker. Parachutes slow down your descent to the ground, it is used in numerous applications. Skydiving is a popular sport. In my opinion it is scary you’re plummeting to the GROUND!!! Anyway they are useful as a safety device. The Military uses it for air-dropping into enemy territory. Lenormand coined the word “parachute” in 1785. A balloonist a new model in 1785. It was a safety device for escaping hot-air balloons. Garnerin demonstrated the all-fabric model in 1797. Demonstrations attracted large crowds. Charles Brcadwick built models for the US military in the 1900s.

Selective Breeding

Robert Bakeewell was born in 1725. He grew up on the farm, Bakewell applied his knowledge to his dad’s farm. He noticed something peculiar about the longhorn steer. Selective breeding was his way of raising higher quality animals. Selective breeding produces desirable traits. The breeder must determine what trait to emphasize. Two similar parents need to be matched up.Various breeding techniques are used. Genetic diversity improves animal heath. Bakewell broke with tradition. Bakewell sold his animals at market. He sold purebred animals to other farmers. Bakewell formed a society in 1783 to train other farmers. Bakewell was a successful and a good teacher. 


Martin Van marum was born in the 1750s. He took his Groningen education to Haralem, the science center. Marum ran the Teylers museum. In 1784, he designed a large generator, with it he invented electrolysis. Electrolysis breaks compounds into elements. Electric current splits the compounds. Current is the flow of electrons from one point to another. Electrolysis is used to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas, and extract metal from ore. Also used to create methane gas. Van Marum repeatedly demonstrated the process in lectures.  By 1800, other scientists were also using it to discover seven elements. Michael Faraday developed the laws of electrolysis It was used to make metals and compounds through the 1900.

Threshing Machine

Andrew Mikle was born in 1719. His father was an inventor who worked in the mills. Any early version of the threshing machine failed commercially. Meikle fixed their problems. He patented the threshing machine in 1788. Threshing: beating the wheat from the chaff. Meikle’s machine was hand-fed and the size of a piano. It reduced the labor required to harvest wheat grains. Modern machines combine all the harvesting processes. That’s why they are called “combines”. The machine didn’t change too much over the next 100 years. Meikle didn’t get rich on them, others made changes and got around his patent. Like others, the invention drew the ire of angry mobs. The swing Riots in the 1830s destroyed hundreds of threshing machines.  

History 4 lesson 145

Soda Water 

Engishmen were making sparkling wine by 1662. Joseph Priestley was a scientist who investigated air, he investigated air in the beer brewery in 1767. The strange air he observed would make water bubbly. He published his discovery of soda water in a paper, soda water is water with carbon dioxide. When drinks are kept under pressure by filling a thin bottle with co2. There are some slight health benefits, crucial to the soft drink market. Mixed drinks with soda water became popular. Priestley used his discovery to enhance his reputation. Schweppe opened a business in 1783 to produce soda water. Darwin’s grandfather helped Schweppes’s business succeed. Acoptiter patented “soda water” in Ireland in 1799. Companies distinguished themselves by offering different flavors of soda. 

Joseph Prienstley

Joseph Priestley was born in England in 1733, he suffered a faith crisis when he was 16. He attended a dissenting university. He taught science and liberal theology for a living. He married into the wealthy Wilkinson family who helped support his scientific dabbling. Priestley invented a new method for producing co2 gas. He discovered oxygen around 1775, He identified the process of photosynthesis. He founded the Unitarian Church in England and America. Priestley’s book on electricity was popular. He extended his influence through teaching and preaching. He engaged in philosophical debates.  

Weighing Scale  

Balances have been used since early in history. The Israelites were given requirements for weight and measurements. Using false weights cheats people. The balance is symbolic of justice. The need for rapid measuring increased as commerce expanded. Scales measure weight, spring scales measure rely on Hooke’s law. F=K X. Spring scales allow you to read weight immediately, this saves time. Salter’s scales were hand-held models. He founded a successful spring company with his nephews. They built bathroom scales in the 1800s. Candle scale built for postal workers.  

Boring machine

The French were suffering from weapon problems, their cannons randomly explode when fired. Their hardness was inconsistent when throughout. A french officer visited John Wilkinson to learn how he made cannons. Wilkinson invented the boring machine in 1774 to build better cannons. Boring machines make holes in solid metal. The machine rotates the barrel being bored. Coolant is applied to keep the metals from melting. The boring machine was extremely. Wilkinson’s boring machine was used to make Watt’s steam engine. Before it, the precision required was impossible to attain. William Wilkinson built a factory in France. The new boring machine used manufactured French cannons, American cannons too.   

History 4 lesson 140

Lead Chamber Process

John Roebuck went to med school in Edinburgh, Scotland, He was taught by William Cullen, a prominent Scotsman. He graduated med school and set up practice in Birmingham. He continued nourishing his interest in Chemistry. Roebuck was familiar with the history of sulfuric acid production. Sulfuric acid is important to the modern economy, used for fertilizer,pesticides, dyes, metals. The lead chamber process increased production capability. Roebuck replaced glass jars with lead-lined rooms. Sulfur saltpeter water= sulfuric acid, Roebuck didn’t patent the method. He kept his invention secret. He built a factory in Edinburgh, the lead chambers were as large as a bedroom. Competing factories sprung up in England and in France.

Spinning Jenny

London Society of Arts took notice of growing weaving industry issues.  They offered cash prices in 1760 for new spinning inventions. James Hargreaves, born in 1721 in England. He was a poor uneducated waver. He had a flash of insight that led to the creation of the Spinning Jenny. I spun eleven threads at once in 1764 then over hundred by 1784. Thread production finally caught up to increased cloth production. It was hand-operated. “Jenny” is short for engine. Thread prices fell, and so did clothes prices. Hargreaves built several for his own use. One spinner could now do the job of s hundred. Envious mobs attacked Hargreaves’s house and destroyed his property. He set up shop in another town. Fabric producers understood the Spinning Jenny’s benefits. 

Richard Arkwright

Richard Arkwright was born in 1731 in England. He apprenticed as a barber. About a year after his son was born his wife died, he turned his sorrow into ambition. He turned to wig making in the 1750s and invented waterproof wig dye, then he turned to textile manufacturing and hired John Kay. Arkwright was an important person. He has sometimes been called “The Father Of The Industrial  Revolution”.  Invented the water frame in 1768.  He invented a new carding machine in 1775.  He developed an early factory system in 177os.  He employed children and used steam engines in his mills. Arkwright developed an extensive business network. Factories expanded all over England. Arkwright achieved recognition by the king for his contributions. He left behind a huge fortune in 1792 (he died at 59 years old).

James Watt

James Watt was born in 1736 Scotland to Covenanter parents. He learned to make science kind of instruments and opened his own business. The university of Glasgow offered him work. A friend introduced him to steam power in 1759. He developed his conden around 1763. Watt is primarily associated with the steam engine. He invented the sun-and -planet gear to get around a crank-connecting rod patent. In 1780 he invented a new way of coping documents. He experimented with chemistry but wasn’t as commercially successful. Watt was influential with other inventors. He opened the Soho Foundry, way ahead of its time. Scientific societies honored him. Newcomen engine owners adapted their engines to incorporate Watt’s enhancements.       


History 4 lesson 135

The Flying Shuttle 

John Kay was born in 1704,he apprenticed in the textile industry.  Then he went into the textile business for himself. He invented a new kind of reed, made from wire, he  then invented the flying shuttle in 1733. The  flying shuttle unleashed fabric production capability, it sped up fabric production. One weaver(instead of two) could produce widecloth. The fling shuttle reduced the skill required. It led to thread shortage. John Kay encountered the forces of envy. HE began manufacturing his new invention,weavers became threatened by the device and tried to drive Kay out of business. Kay was blamed for rising thread prices. He almost went bankrupt defending hs patent against pirates (unsuccessfully)

Marine Chronometer

John Harrison was born in 1693 a carpenter’s son, he became interested in clocks at age. He invented a new temperature compensating pendulum. He gained insights during its design that aided his future work. His chronometer was designed to win the monetary prize. The marine chronometer is a fine crafted precision machine. Immune to: temperature,humidity, pressure, and gravity. It’s time was the reference point for determining longitude. And thanks to marine chronometer sailing accuracy improved greatly. Harrion refined his design for the next 30 years. Parliament was reluctant to award him the prize, Captain James Cook lauded Harrison’s chronometer. They were expensive in italy expensive. The English Navy began requiring each ship to have one in the 1800s.  

Anders Celsius 

Anders Celsius was born in 1701. His grandfather was a famous scientist. He developed stenography in Sweden from his rune discoveries. His uncle olaf was an influential scientist too. Anders entered his father’s university and then became a professor. The centigrade temperature scale was originally backwards, Anders participated in the expeditions to determine the Earth’s shape. He initiated scientific inquiry into the Northern Lights. He founded Uppsala observatory in 1741. His participation in the expedition made him famous. His friend Linnaeus inverted his temperature scale. Celsius published papers and participated in Swedish scientific societies. He wrote a popular math book for children. 

Leyden Jar 

Two scientists invented the Leyden Jar. Kleist’s teacher was Gravesande, a teacher of Newton’s ideas. Kleist theorized that electricity was a fluid,inspired by Hauksbee’s machine. He got a huge shock from a jar he built. Professor musschenbroek perfected it. The Leyden Jar is a battery that stores charge. A glass jar sides coated with metal electrodes inside. It was charged by being connected to an Influence Machine. Touching the electrode discharges it,your hand originally played the role of the foil. Muschenbroek told French scientists about the new invention. He also egan selling them to rich scientists in France. Daniel Gralth of Poland began experimenting with it. He publicized the jar in experiments before other scientists. He wrote a major history book on electricity.      


History 4 lesson 130

History 4 lesson 130

Abaham Darby was born in 1678 near Worcestershire, His great grand-uncle served in the English Civil war. He devised an early coke- burning iron process. Daby learned metallurgy coke-burning processes. Darby combined his skills, his uncle’s story and his own interests to invent the coke fired blast furnace. Darby’s iron smelting factory was more efficient than others. Coke: high in carbon and few impurities. His iron became competitive with brass, he figured out how to make iron thinner. He made cheap pots and pans,utensils and tools. Darby’s investors got scared in 1708 and left. In 1712 the Newcomen steam engine was invented. Orders came in from all over but iron production was constrained. Darby’s new factory enabled him to fulfill the orders and stay in business, Darby’s factory remained in business long after his death in 1717. 

Newcomen Steam Engine

Papin built the first piston steam engine in 1690. Tomas Savery built and patented a steam pump in 1698. Thomas Newmomen was an English Baptist ironworker. He built the world’s first true steam engine in 1712 Newcomen entered into partnership with Savery. Steam engines perform mechanical work. It used the vacuum to power the pump. Newcomen’s engine successfully pumped water out of mines. He marketed his engine through his network of Baptist business contacts. He met Joseph Hornblower through his travels and preaching. Horn Blower worked for Newcomen and built his engine. He passed the trade skills onto his son,who passed them onto his son.

Thomas Newcomen

Newcomen was born in Dartmouth in 1663. He became an ironmonger. He probably worked with Thomas savery on his engine (“Miner’s Friend.”) Savery and Newcomen got a patent together in 1707. Savery’s pump wasn’t too great, Newcomen improved it. Newcomen’s engine was a mederm marvel. It finally overcame the mining flooding problem. Newcomen’s job was ironmonger but his calling was pastor. Our job funds our calling. Newcomen’s work supported his preaching, his preaching increased his business.

The Octant

John Hadley was an English philosopher, He joined the Royal Society in 1717. His inheritance allowed him to do science. He grew interested in Newton’s reflecting telescope, HE built a superior model and then invented the octant. The octant distances between celestial objects. It was smaller and easier to handle. The octant could be used day or night. It lines up the sun with the hizon. The octant had overtaken the market by 1780 It was easy to read and more accurate It was available with many different options. Ot was capable of implementing the lunar-distance method for determining longitude. 

History 4 lesson 125

Gottfried Leibiz 

Gottfried Leibiz was born the son of a professor,he started college at 15 and published his first book when he was 19. By the time he was 20 he had 4 degrees and a law license,he went to work for the German government. Leibniz accessed scientific inspiration in France. The Leibniz was crucial for mechanical calculus. He invented calculus notation. He philosophized about symoliclogic, Leibniz was also a practical inventor. Leibniz gained reputation through government work. He demonstrated the mechanical calculator to the Royal Society in 1673. He visited England and met with Newton in 1676. Leibniz developed the first German scientific journal that popularized his ideas and others. The calculus controversy was started by Leibniz’s journal.

The Piano

Bart Cristofori invented the piano, he was a talented Italian musician and inventor. He went to work for the Medicis in Florence,Italy managing and creating. He finished his first piano in 1700, Its name comes from its Italian description:”che fail piano, eil forte”. The piano is a stringed instrument that uses keys to trigger a hammer. They are complicated devices that use simple machines to amplify your finger force. It is musically versatile: classic,jazz,rock, and so on. The piano teaches great music education. The musical spectrum is visualized on the keyboard. Cristonfori began selling his piano as medical weath declined and his blueprints were published and widely read in a journal. The design was improved as a result of Bach’s critical comments. Mozart then wrote successful piano music. 

The Thermometer 

The Greeks figured out that materials expand and contract. Galileo invented the thermoscope in 1593. They were applied practically. But they were sensitive to air pressure as temperature. The medicis devised an alcohol thermometer. The early thermometers had no standardized scales. Daniel Fahrenheit was born in 1686 and lived in the Dutch Republic. After his parents died, he became a merchant’s apprentice. He quit his job and took out a loan tomake his own thermometers. While was an outlaw he traveled and interacted with other scientists. Thermometers are sealed off from the environment, thermometers measure temperature. Their scale is based around the boiling and melting points of water. Thermometers offer practical benefits like weather forecasting and cooking. They are critical in industrial and power production prosesses. Fahrenheit saw that the Italian thermometers didn’t have standard scales, he decided we should base a scale on material properties. He published his temperature scale in 1724. He produced thermometers that both indicated the same temperature, his scale became the most popular in the world.

The seismometer

The chinese invented the seismometer in 132 AD. It took 1600 years for the idea to take root again this time in Europe. The pendulum was an object of growing interest by 1700 AD. Italian Nicholas Cirillo invented a seismometer that used a pendulum in 1731. Seismometers measure earthquakes. A spring-weight system detects surface motion. Modern seismometers incorporate electronics to improve sensitivity. Seismometers can prevent death due to tsunamis. They can also be used to predict volcanic eruptions. A series of earthquakes in Italy in the 1780s drove interest. They were disastrous to the economy. Salsano built a pendulum seismometer in 1783 to measure them. The most powerful earthquakes in American history struk in 1611-1812. Daniel Drake detected them using a seismometer modeled after Salsanos.               

History 4 lesson 120

Christian Huygens 

Christain Huygens was born in 1629 in the Duch Republic. His father was friends with Mersenne and Descartes. Huygens received a scientific education, he studied under great philosophers and received praise. 

He published his first book when he was 22 years old. Hugens discovered the rings of saturn in 1655. He invented the pendulum clock in 1650, he discovered the mathematical formula for centripetal force. He proposed the theory of light in 1678, he invented the magic lantern in 1659. His work ethic was motivated by his protestant upbringing, Heygens corresponded with mersenne and Descartes. He was well received in Paris in 1655 because of his family reputation. His family name opened doors early on, he was also friendly and likeable. Huygens became a founding member of the French Academy of sciences. 


Europeans began advancing the ancient methods by the 1600s, John Wallis invented “infinitesimals” and aided the cromwell puritans. Meanwhile an important young man attending college in England in 1661, this young man’s name was Isac Newton. Isac Newton graduated in 1664 and discovered Wallis’s book about infinitesimals. Gottfriend Libniz and Isac Newton both  invented calculus at the same time. “Calculus” means a small pebble used for counting. It is the mathematical study of change. Differential: An acceler car has a “changing velocity (speed). Integral: adding small pieces into a whole. Differentiation and integration are opposite procedures. Calculus is used in every branch of science. Modern digital age founded upon calculus. Natural philosophers used calculus to investigate the universe. Calculus solved problems like Kepler’s. A dispute between Newton and Lebibniz over credit began in the 1690s. Ltlonital published a popular calculus textbook in 1696.

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

Leeuwenhoek didn’t go to college, he was interested in investigating the quality of cloth. Cloth sellers used magnifying lenses to do that. He saw Hooke’s book on a visit to London. Leeuwenhoek began making his own tiny lenses. He is known for the microscope, he made his own microscopes. He discovered microorganisms while looking at lake water. He made several discoveries between 1674 and 1683. Leeuwenhoek never published a book, a doctor friend introduced him to the Royal Society. He wrote hundreds of letters about his discoveries. The Royal Society became suspicious of his claim about “small animals”, He became the center of microscopic discovery by 1700. A businessman not a professional scientist dominated a branch of science.  

Isac Newton

Newton had public life and a hidden one. Newton (1642-1727) studied natural philosophy in college. Newton abandoned Christianity. The Chinese and others practiced alchemy. Alchemy:using secret knowledge to attain self translation. Newton was an alchemist. Newton science provided an alternative worldview. The principia (1687) laws of motion and gravity. The laws of motion established classical mechanics. 1: Objects in motion tend to stay in motion, 2: P=ma, 3: for every action there’s an equal and opposite reaction. Law of Universal Gravitation inspired by a falling apple. 

Newton invented light and optics. He invented the first reflecting telescope. Newton ruled the Royal Society for 25 years. J.T. Desaguliers promoted Newton through public lectures. He also co-founded modern Freemasonry. During the 1770s 25% of the Royal Society were masons. The Freemasons played a crucial role in launching the American Revolution.               

History 4 lesson 115

Mercury Barometer 

Through Galileo Torricell became interested in the problem. The problem was that miners had trouble pumping weather out of mines. Torricell built a model in his backyard and it drew attention. He substituted mercury for water and invented the mercury harometer.                                                                           

Barometers measure atmospheric pressure. It consists of a tube and a dish full of mercury. Mercury is a dense liquid metal. A vacuum appears at the top of the tube. The level changes along with the air pressure. The barometer helps us predict the weather. Torricelli wrote a letter about the device to his friend Ricci, in Rome. Ricci sent Torricelli’s letter to Mersenne in France and Mersenne sent Torrielli’s letter to Pascal. Then Pascal asked his relative to take the barometer up a mountain. His relative agreed and he did it along with several important local people. 

Pendulum Clock

 Christian Huygens was born in 1629 in the Ductch Republic. He learned of the pendulum through Galieo’s insights. The pendulum is “isochronous” determined by its length. Huyges completed what Galileo Started and invented the first pendulum clock. The pendulum clock removed old design defects. It reduced clock error down to 15 seconds per day. Short swings are more accurate than long ones. The minute hand appeared by 1690. The pendulum regulates the escapent’s energy release. The pendulum releases one gear tooth per swing. The escapement powers the pendulum. The pendulum clock spread quickly. An improved escapement mechanism was invented in 1675. George Graham popularized the device through  clockmaker Thomas Tompion. Thompson’s High-quality workmanship was the result of the protestan work ethic.

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle was born in 1627 and studied Galileo’s work. He became a member of the Invisible college to conduct scientific investigation. He learned of the vacuum pump in 1657. Boyle transitioned alchemy to chemistry. He believed in science as a way to glorify God. He published a ground-breaking book, The Skeptical Chemist. He rejected the Greek view of four. He proposed an alternative: matter made of atoms. Ancient Greek philosophers and similar ideas studied the philosophical idea but didn’t do the science. 

Boyle’s Christian faith gave him confidence to explore the concept. The cultural differences explain the success or failure of ideas in different times. Boyle’s influence was established through the Invisible college I became the Royal society a prestigious institution of early scientists. King Charles II provided funding after 1660. Boyle almost became the president in 1680. The Royal Science to help mankind.             

History 4 Lesson 110 essay

Merenne’s Laws

Mersenne was born in 1558 in France and corresponded with prominent scholars after 1620. He was interested in protecting against occult influences. Merenne pursued the mathematical basis of acoustics without getting confused. Audible sound vibrates at a certain frequency. Mersenne’s laws tell how to tune a string instrument. Longer strings play lower notes, tighter strings play higher notes and heavier strings play lower notes. Mersenn gets the credit even though he didn’t come up with the idea. Galileo had the idea but didn’t think they could be proven but since Mersenne published his findings he got the credit. He spread them using the large network he had built over time. 

Cartesian Coordinates 

Descartes was born in France in 1596. He was educated by jesuits.  He joined the Duthch army and developed a thirst to systematize mathematical physics. He was a chistian who believed our reason was founded on God’s existence. His coordinate system was published in 1637. Cartesian coordinates let you graph coordinates on a plane. Descartes invented the modern algebraic notation. His coordinate system allows the platting of geometric shapes in algebraic notation: x2+y2=4 (circle.) Cartesian coordinates united algebra and geometry. Electrical quantities can be represented. Mathematics are man-made. Symbols and rules that incredibly conrespond. Descartes wasn’t the only person to invent the idea but the credit goes to Descartes because he published the idea. Mersenne’s scholarly not work helped spread Descartes ideas. Descartes’ system was initially a single axis. The Duch added the second axis when translating the book. 

Mechanical Calculator

Blaise pascal was born in France in 1623. His family’s wealth suffered ups and downs. His father became a tax collector for the king of France. Paslal observed the repetitive calculations he had to do. Pascal wanted to alleviate his dad’s burdes. He designed a special “carry” mechanism. His sautor linked wheels together automatically as one turned over from 9 to 0. It consisted of input wheels and display windows. Pascal’s machine wasn’t the first built but he gets the credit.

Blaise Pascal

  Blaise pascal was born in France in 1623 Pascal was a child prodigy gifted in math. His father took him to Mersenne’s meeting. He invented the mechanical calculator to help his father. He experienced a kind of religious conversion when he was 23. Pascal is best known for pascal’s law. He investigated the concept of the vacuum. He got involved with experiments associated with the invention of the barometer. Pascal laid the foundations of probabilistic theory. He wrote influential books. Pascal’s influence spread throughout Mersenne’s network. He died when he was just 39     

History 4 lesson 105


Johannes Kepler

Kepler was born in 1571 in the Holy Roman Empire his grandfather was a mayor and his father a mercenary. His mom took him to see a comet when he was six years old. He almost became a minister but moved to astronomy instead. Kepler viewed the universe as an analogy of the Trinity. His first book established his reputation and astronomy skills. It helped introduce him to Tycho Brahe. Kepler worked with Tycho for a year. 

Tycho died and Kepler was appointed his successor. His book on the orbit of mars was published in 1609. Kepler’s best known for his three laws of planetary motion. Kepler sent copies of his books to important astronomers. His laws weren’t immediately received. Galileo was a little cool towards Kepler because of Kepler’s astrological tendencies. 

Galileo Galilei 

Galileo’s father was a talented musician and he investigated the chord construction. Galileo learned how to do early science from his dad. He wanted to become a priest but his father convinced him to be a physician. By accident he took a geometry class and became interested in astronomy. Galileo was a bioner and also controversial He designed a new military compass and thermometer. He improved the telescope in 1609. Galileo applied mathematics to physics. Before there were appeals to Aristotle’s authority: Aristotle said. He was caught up in the “Galileo Affair” with the Roman catholic church for being critical of Aristotelian philosophy. 

The side Rule 

John Napier invented the logarithm in 1614. He did it to help sailors and astronomers. Napier’s book was a table full of logarithms. The slide rule was invented in 1630. The slide rule makes it easier to multiply and divide It also does away with the book of tables. The middle strip out between the top and bottom strips. More complex rules add more features. It quickly became popular Kepler used logarithms to produce his enhanced star charts but the calculations took a while. The slide rule in 1630 and made them faster. Improved models were continually developed.

John Napier 

John Napier was born in Edinburgh,Scotland (1550). He entered the university at 13 and became interested in theology. He applied his inventiveness to his estate. Napier applied his creativity to mathematics. Napier’s greatest achievement was inventing the logarithm. His motivation was to serve others. His commentary on Revelation was also important. He wanted to persuade Scotland to resole Catholicism. Napier’s “Bones” were popular tools that simplified calculations. He calculated ten million logarithms for his book. Napier explained the benefits of the logarithm through simple examples. The book caught the attention of a prominent English professor.