History 6 Week 2 Review Essay

My favorite place in the world was Ancient Greek. I know I’ve said this before but I’ll say it again. Ever since Percy Jackson I’ve been really interested in Greek and Roman Mythology, and for some reason I’ve also been interested in Egyptian Mythology. I haven’t read any books that got me interested in it but I do have a book called The Kane Chronicles by Rick Rioran. Who is the author of the Percy Jackson series.  Anyway, back on track, if I don’t get back on track then I’ll end up talking about books. My point was it was interesting because my teacher talked about a story that I read in English. It was really interesting to hear that story again. Not gonna lie I forgot most of it because of the other stories I read. But I would one day really like to just learn as much as I can about Greek Mythology.  

History 6 Lesson 5 Essay

If I was there at the Tower of Babel when God confused the people by changing their languages, I think that mine would be Ancient Greek, and once I’ve found others who can speak my language, we would travel to ancient Greece. Not gonna lie ever since I read the Percy Jackson book series, I’ve wanted to travel to Rome and Greece. And I actually plan to after I graduate from college travel with my best friend and we’re gonna travel the world for a bit before we get the jobs that we want. Because we live in a small town and not many of the kids wanna leave and said that they will probably get jobs there, now i love my home town but I don’t plan on living there. I plan on living somewhere far away, and only coming back for a visit of two, or  three days, or one day. 

History 5 Lesson 180

Before I start the Essay I just wanted to say that this is the last lesson for History 5, I don’t know when I will be starting History 6 but I’m enjoying my break from a least one subject.

Throughout both courses of this History, I have learned to take very good notes on things. Especially for when I have to write my essays. I’m The Secretary for the 4-H Council, and for my club. As well as the Secretary for my FFA Chapter, and thanks to this course, I’ve learned to take notes and picea those notes together to make something. I’ve learned a whole lot from this course because I find myself watching movies that have to do with historical objects and I see something I learned about from History. I started telling my parents about it. Sometimes they are shocked, other times they give me more information about the invention. Especially the ones that have to do with agriculture, because my mom is a Highschool AG teacher.

History 5 Lesson 175

Flash Memory

Fujio Masuoka was born in Japan in 1943. He went to work with Toshiba. Worked with metal-oxide semiconductor memory. Invented improved EEPROM he called “flash” memory in 1981. Flash:solid-state memory that can be quickly erased and written to . Stable and resistant to environmental effects. MOSFET; most common transistor. Stored charye signals. Published TEEE paper on NAND. Intel introduced the first chip in 1988. The Sandisk was founded in 1988. Compact Flash format launched in 1994. Used in hard drives beginning in 2007. 

CD-Rom

James Russewell patented disc writing tech in 1966. Philips and Sony partnered in 1970 on standardized CD format. CDs overtook tapes in 1992. Developed CD-Rom format in 1985. 4.7inches, 650 MB. 33,000 sectors 2,352 bytes per sector.  Pits punched into aluminum. CD-Rom,65 times more space than hard drives in 1985. Microsoft shipped the first CD-Rom software in 1987.  CD-Rom drives became standard features on PCS in the 1990s. Magazines packed CDS full free of software in their pages. 

Cellular Phone

Concept of mobile phones emerged early. Car phones appeared in the 1940s. AT & T released IMTS in 1965. Bell labs developed cellular concepts beginning in 1947. Took 20 years for tech to develop. Martin Cooper led cell phone development at motorola. Cell phones were invented in 1973. Benefit: “Mobile” phone. Connects users to landline networks through radio. Large areas divided into cells. Increases the number of users possible. Cell ndworks were launched beginning in 1979. AMPS deployed in multiple countries. DynaTAC released in 1983. Ads conveyed the benefits. 4G (lTE) appeared in 2010. 

World Wide Web

Tin Bernes-Leo was born in England in 1955. Degree in physics, worked in telecom industry. Joined CERN in 1980. Scientists had difficulty sharing files. Developed ENQUTRE over 6 mo. Returned in 1984. Invented world wide web in 1990-1991. The www-stored info. URL is the page address on the net. Embed links make accessing additional info easy. Easily retrieve knowledge. Subdomains: ww,ftp, ect. Tin, come up with a world wide web. First  website explained how to use www. Internet  consortium formed in 1994 Netscape released in 1994. Microsoft’s browser appeared in 1995.

History 5 Lesson 170

TCP/ IP Internet Protocol

Telephones use circuit switching. Packet switching was developed in the 1960s. Network protocol improved for ARPANET computers. HOw to allow satellites to talk to ARPANET. TCP/IP allows computers to talk over the network. Four “layers”: hardware Internet, transport application. Routers forward “packets” to nodes. Stanford and London communicated in 1972. Big companies adopted it. Companies TCP/IP add-ons for operating systems. Microsoft included it for free beginning with Windows 95.

Graphical User Interface

Sutherland from ARPANET developed sketchpad. Doug Engelbart invented the mouse in 1960. Xerox opened PARC in 1969. GuI invented at RARC in 1973. GUI: Interface between humans and computers. Mouse translates human motion into digital commands. Allows people to easily use computers. It maximizes user efficiency. Xerox’s Alto was too expensive. Word spread through silicon valley about it. Steve Jobs and Apple toured PAR in 1979. Jobs developed Lisa, $9,995. Motorola’s 6800 processor was powerful. Apple released Macintosh in 1989.

Steve Jobs  

Steve Jobs was born in 1955, Steve’s adopted father Paul was a handyman. Steve learned about details from his dad. He made his parents move to escape bullies. Met Steve Wozniak at a new school in cupertino. Went to work for Atari. Co-founded apple computer in 1976. Apple computers led computing and consumer electronics. Jobs left them, returned to Apple and launched iMac, ipd, iphone, iPad.  Found NEXT after Apple. He developed Pixar into a major movie production company. Then became Disney’s largest shareholder in 2006. Jobs understood the purpose. Developed a trademark look and teased his audience. There were catchy commercials. Understood the point of entrepreneurship. 

Bill Gates 

Bill Gates was born in 1955. He began programming in PASIC when 13 year old. Bill Gates and Pual Allen were early hackers. Gates wrote a program that put him in class with all the pretty girls. He went to Harvard and met Steve Ballmer. He read about Altair in 1975. Dropped out of HArvard to develop software for Altair. Founded Microsoft in 1976. Gates stuck with Microsoft from 1975 to 2008/2012. Microsoft office software is used by billions of people. Brought welsbrowsing to the mainstream privslic with windows. Gates kept Microsoft in line with its mission. Hada fiery personality, Ired Steve Ballmer in 1980. Ballmer led Microdot through the Xbox launch. Gates’s wife Melinda convinced him to form the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

History 5 Lesson 165

Unix 

Thomson was born in NEw Orleans in 1943. Ritch was born in New York in 1941. They were the last of the Bell Labs engines to leave Muitics. Thompson kept playing on his computer. They invented the Unix in 1969. UNIX doesn’t matter what hardware it runs on. Programs do just one thing. Output becomes input. Rewrite and delete often. Build more tools, don’t just add people. Kerns shell programs. Shell: comets user to kernel. Hierarchical life system. Design for multiple users and security. Bell Lab’s used unix at work. Invented “C” programming language to port to other computers. Bell Labs licensed to other companies. College students took it with them to the business world. Steve Jobs built a Unix-based operating system called NeXISTEP. 

Microprocessor

Robert Noyce, founder of Intel. Busicom asked Intel to build a processor for their calculator in 1969. Intel identified problems. Intel revised the chip’s design and reduced its complexity. Created the first microprocessor the 4004 in 1971. Microprocessor: processing and control. ALU is a fundamental building block. ALUs can be combined to make FPUs GPUs. Control unit driven by a crystal clock manages operations. Same processor design can be used in multiple applications. Busicom released exclusive rights of 4004 to Intel. Advertised programmable computer on a chip. Followed up with an 8-bit processor that led Altair. With a sparkling microcomputer. Apple computer founded in 1976. 

Video Game Console 

Ralph Baer was born in Germany in 1922. Climbed the electronic industry. Began working on TV projects for the military in the 1950s. Came up with the idea for a TV game in 1966.  He convinced the CEO to approve more funding. Magnavox Odyssey was released in 1972. Video game console: Computer that displays games on TV. Wireless controllers gyroscope. Provides entertainment experience possible. Odyssey sold pretty well. Pon appeared in 1972. Atew 2600 released in 1977. Great video game crash of 1983. Nintendo revived the industry with the NES in 1985. 

VHS and VCR

First VCRS released to the commercial industry in 1956. The JVC company wanted to develop records for consumers. Sony developed Betamax JVC developed VHS. Betmans could only record 1 hour. The VHS-playing VCR was released in the US in 1977. Tape heads transfer information from tape to screen. The heads spin ganist magnetic tape. Magnetic fields in the tape head read or write data to and from tape.  Several consumer benefits. It was programmable. It became cheaper to record home movies. Initial resistance from movie studios. Consumers wanted longer recording time. RcA released a 4-hour recorder Several competing VHS models appeared.  

History 5 Lesson 150 

Crystal Oscillator

Series of incremental discoveries. Curies discovered piezoelectricity. Used it to build instruments for detecting radioactivity. Piezoelectricity drew Scientific and invented the first oscillator in 1917. Dr.Cady invented his own in 1920. Patent lawsuits ensued.Solid materials can produce electricity when squeezed. Also works in reverse. Crystals can generate oscillating signals with low power. Multiply and divide with low power. Multiply and divide the output frequencies. Important as filters in transmitters and receivers. Better radios appeared in the 1920s. It was used in most radio stations by 1926. Made their way into clocks. Us Army converted its radio equipment to crystal in 1939. The wristwatch appeared in 1969. Critical in all electronics after the 1960s. 

George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver was born in the 1860s. Became a Christian as a boy, learned to give back to others. Earning a college education, he went to work for Booker T. Washington. He ran experimental farms. Mostly known for his farming techniques. Pioneered crop rotation in the South. Promoted peanut recipes Mobile classroom for teaching farmers. Became famous for work with peanuts. Teddy Roosevelt became an admirer, he was honored by the Royal Society of Arts in England. Became nationally known after speaking before congress in 1929. 

Yagi Uda Antenna 

Tohoku university in Japan. Hidetsugu Yagi, researched radio waves. Shintaro Uda studied under Yagi. He invented the Yagi Uda antenna in 1926. Radio waves induce currents in antennas. Yagi Uda increases directivity. It is  a modified dipole, the reflector and directors focus. It was cheap to make. IT was published in an English article in 1928. It was used when broadcasting went mainstream after the war. Yagi Uda antenna works well in VHF and UHF Frequency bands. 

    Penicillin 

Alexander Fleming was born in Scotland in 1881. Studied under a vaccine professor. He saw hundreds of wounded soldiers die during WWI. Studied bacteria for the next 14 years. Invented Penicillin in 1929. Penicillin can be swallowed or injected. It’s a fungus that kills bacteria. It’s grown in large tanks. 13 years would pass until the first patient was saved. Hard to grow an excited body quickly. Dr. Florey looked up the project in 1938. He worked with Ameraicans to mass produce it.            

History 5 Lesson 145

Before I start on the inventions for the week (Which I may or may not have forgotten to post) I just realized that I haven’t posted in a while, which not that I think any of you minded. I was busy with showing my animals and only on this last Sunday was I done for the year. I’m sorry for not posting this sooner, as I said earlier I was really busy and I wasn’t doing much school because of it, but now I’m done with showing, (For now) and I can get back to school, it might take me a while though, because as of right now, all I’m doing is one subject a day maybe two. Because our family reunion is coming up! Along with my birthday and a rodeo. Our last rodeo of the season, or at least out local rodeo association’s season. My mom said that there might be some rodeos this Winter, which I’m excited for! Now onto the inventions this week! Or whenever it was that I was supposed to post this.

Safety Razor 

King Camp Gilltte was born in Wisconsin in 1855. He lived through the Great Chicago Fire. He worked as a cork salesman. He noticed people bought disposable products. Applied that to the razor. Invented a safety razor in 1901. Safety razors cleanly shave skin. It uses a protective guard to prevent injury. It uses disposable blades. Permanently handle disposable blades. He put his picture on ads. It became successful because of low prices. In the 1920s refocus on research. Razor innovations appeared in 1998.

Airplane 

The Wright Brothers were born in 1878. They were inspired by Otto Lilienthal. They focused on aircraft control systems. They took experience from making bicycles. Balance was key. They studied birds. Created “Unstable” Wing designs. They built wind tunnels. A thousand glides in 1902. Propeller engines and jet turbines. They carry passengers and cargo great distances quickly. It received little newspaper attention. There was a public event in 1904. The Wrights secured a government contract in 1908.

Vacuum Tube 

John Rleming was born in England in 1849. He wanted to be an engineer at 11. Studied under Maxwell. Worked in Edison’s company then under Marconi. Invented Vacuum tube in 1904. Thermionic emission: electrons flow from hot filament. Receptor plate is cool and eleives electrons. It’s used to convert AC to DC. Block negative current. It can be used to build radio demodulators. Extracts information from AM signal. Fleming’s value used by Marconi. Published paper in 1905. 

The Model T

Henry Ford was born in Michigan in 1863. Learned to maintain portable steam engines. Built his quartile in 1896. Edison encouraged pursuits. Ford’s race car in 1902 promoted his brand. Ford invented the Model T in 1908. The Model T was the first affordable car. Henry Ford said “Any color you want, as long as it’s black.” Perfected assembly line and interchangeable parts. It gave families freedom. Succeeded because of the price. One new car every 3 minutes. From $ 825 to $260 in 16 years. Ford didn’t even have time to advertise for a long time.  

History 5 Lesson 140

Diesel Engine 

Rudolf Diesel was born in France in 1858. He Went into engineering school when he was 14. He began experimenting with ammonia engines. Invented Diesel engine based on Carnot cycle in 1893. Diesel engines don’t need a spark to ignite. It Uses hot compressed air. Diesel fuel specially designed to work in Diesel engines. More fuel efficient and reliable than gasoline engines. It produces high torque at RPMs. The commercial world brought into Diesel engines immediately in 1894. Built 23 HP engine in 1896. Diesel-powered ships appeared in 1903. Germas built diesel-powered U-boats in 1912. Diesel engines began replying to steam locomotives in the 1910s.

Mousetrap 

Several mouse traps had been built in the 1800s. James patented a trap in 1879. “Little Nipper”  patented in 1898 in Britain. William C. Hooker invented the modern mousetrap in 1894. Mouse Traps kill mice. Spring-loaded bar swings down and breaks the neck of the mouse. The traps effectively eliminate the mice. It prevents further spread of disease from the mice. Patent holders sold to bigger companies. Hooker and Mast manufactured improved versions. Over 4,400 patents developed from 1838 to 1996. 

    Radio 

Marconi was born in Italy  in 1874. He became interested in Hertr’s experiments. Noticed no one applying waves practically. Applied them to wireless telegraphy. He built his own transmitters at home. He invented the radio in 1895. Radio waves are eaunchent from antennas. From 3 KHZ to 300 GHZ. AM and FM are important. Amplitude modulation changes the wave’s strength. Frequency modulation changes the wave’s frequency. AM is good for voice FM is for music. It transmits to multiple listeners at once. Other methods besides AM and FM. Italy wasn’t interested at first. The British were interested. Public lectures by the British government made Marconin world-famous. Gained publicity from the Titanic accident. 

Semi-Automatic Shotgun

John Browning was born in Utah in 1855. He built his first rifle in 1878. Winchester purchased this model from Browning. Browning developed lever action rifles and pump-action shotguns. He invented the semi Automatic Auto- 5 shotguns in 1898. The semi-auto shotgun automatically loads the next shell after firing. There were several methods for doing so. Easier and quicker to fire shotgun rounds. Advertised to hunters and sportsmen. Was legendary by the 1940s. Manufactured for 100 years until 1998.         

History 5 Lesson 135

Coca-Cola

John Pemberton was born in George in 1831. He fought in the Civil War. He became addicted to morphine after he got saber slashed. He relished his addiction and experimented with coca wines. It helped with the morphine addiction. Unfortunately a law passed for no one to have any alcoholic beverage. So Pemberton had to think of something else for his morphine addiction. Pemberton invented coca-cola in 1886. Coca-cola is a sweet, carbonated drink. And my favorite soda! Back to the history now! It contains caffeine from kola nuts. Another reason why it’s so rare for me to have one. It has caffeine in it! Back to the history…again. Coca-cola originally contained cocaine. Then cocaine was removed in 1903. While we know the general ingredients of coca-cola the whole recipe is a secret. 

Pemberton sold coke in a pharmacy in 1886. Coca-cola company founded in 1892. Advertised on outdoor wall painting. Sopislacted image Advertised drink benefits. 

Induction Motor

Nickola Tesla was born in the Austrian Empire in 1856. Wanted to become an engineer. He went to work with Edison’s company. Founded Tesla Electric company in 1887. Invented induction motor in 1888. Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Stator and rotor.  Rotating magnetic fields make the motor turn. Ac power produces the fields. Sator fields induce magnetic fields in the rotor. The motor produces torque. Turns fans and pumps. Tesla’s investors marketed his motor. He demonstrated to engineers and businessmen. Licensed motor to Westinghouse. Led to the end of war of Currents. 90% of motors are induction motors.

Ballpoint Pen

John J. Loud was born in MAssachusetts in 1844. He was a trained lawyer, but went into banking with his father Interested in genealogy and church activities. Invented ballpoint pen in 1888. Small metal ball used as tip. Gravity and capillary action moves ink through the pen. Two inks: oil-based and water based. Useful on a wide variety of surfaces. Loud’s design worked as intended. He took developments in Chemistry to prevent ink from leaking. Major breakthrough came in 1938 with Biro’s pen. 

Zipper

Whitcomb Judson was born in Chicago in 1846. He began patenting inventions in the 1880s. He was tired of buttoning his shoes. He invented the zipper in 1890. The zipper is two strips of fabric together. Little teeth are locked together. A y-channel slider. Quick and easy to seal-up openings in clothes. Useful fo carges storage too. Jusdson founded a company advertised at Chicago world’s fair in 1893. It continued improving. Hired an electrical engineer named sunback 1906. He developed modern design by 1923. BF Goodrich put them on their rubber boots. Levi put on their jeans in 1947.