History 5 Lesson 55


Crawford Long was born in Gergi in 1815. He spent many years learning to become a doctor. Long moved home to Georgia to practice. Long noted the properties and effects of weather on people. Used either as an anesthetic in 1842. Diethyl ether general anesthetic for surgery. He breathed in vapor from a rag. Signaled the era of pain-free surgery. Side effect:made patients sick. Multiple liam over the invention of anesthesia. Morton, Jakson, and Long all claimed credit. All three fought bitterly which ended in humiliation and tragedy. Morton and wells probably get the idea from Long. History acknowledges Long as the inventor.

Fax Machine

Alexander Bain invented the fax machine, he was born in Scotland in 1811. Apprenticed to a clockmaker. Moved to Lonton. He learned about electromagnetic field theory. Combined clockmaking and electricity to invent a coping machine. Fax machines scan and reproduce documents. Data transmitted as audio signals. Transmits a page every five seconds over telephone lines. Reproduces documents of text or images in seconds. Bain continued to improve his fax machine. Bakewell made a better version that replaced Bain’s pendulums. An Italian developed a machine that became commercially successful around 1861. Competition emerged by 1900, and Elisha Grey created an innovative device in the US.

Steam-Powered Iron Passengers Ships

Isambard Brunel was born in England in 1806. He was educated by his father and school. He apprenticed as a clockmaker. Assisted father Marc with Thames Tunnel. Isambard built bridges and the Great Estern Railroad. Brunel wanted to add steam ships. He invented iron steamships in 1843. Large steam ships transport people and cargo long distances, steam power made their schedules predictable. It used peroellers instead of paddle wheels. It faried lots of passengers at times cheaply. Brunel was renowned throughout England. His ships outperformed rivals. Had grand visions that captured the public’s imagination. Steamship demand increased in 1880a due to immigtation to America. 

Ice Cream Maker

Making ice cream was an labor-intensive process. You had to manually spin and scrape. Nancy Johson invented the hand cranked ice cream maker. Johnson  patented it in 1843. Ice cream: Whipping cream sugar, vanilla extract. Salt lowered the melting point of ice. Ice goes in, outer vat ingredients go in the conister. Blade scrapes the ice cream from the wall. Made the process more efficient. Nancy Johnson sold patent rights.Ice cream store appeared and mass-production facilities emerged by the second half of the 1800s.   


English 6 Lesson 65

Hello again! So my assignment today was to write a short essay about one of my grandparents. Ask them about what life was like when they were growing up. Or write as if to a younger sibling. Give advice on how to be healthy. I chose the first assignment, I did something kinda simulator to the west, before I had started homeschool, I had an assignment from my fourth grade english teacher, (Because when I was in fourth grade I went to public school), anyway the assignment was to write a biography on some you admire. So I chose my grandma, so my point is I already have some information on her, I would ask my grandpa, but not all the time I can understand what he says. I think a lot of what he says is gibberish. I love him, but not all the time I understand what he’s saying. So without further ado here it is!

April L. Evans/ Romero (Aka Patches, that’s what I call my grandma) was born on April 29, 1951 in Mesa Arizona to Art and Wanda Evens. She moved with her two brothers and her parents to The ladder Ranch in 1953. Where she grew up around horses and brangus cattle. I remember this one story, that Patches told, her and her mom, along with her brothers I think went to a friends/ neighbor’s house, they had two boys, and they got Patches to come over and look at a coyote skin, they disappeared then yelled and throw the coyote skin at Patches, she screamed and ran away. Then there was this one time where he and her brothers were riding their horses  bareback and playing cowboys and indians. Their dad wouldn’t help them put their saddles up on their horses and they were too young to put them up by themselves, so that’s why they rode bareback. They would come running down the hill on their horses every time they’d car on the dirt road, it scared the people in the cars.  Except one time one of those cars was their dad, they got in so much trouble after that and they were told never to do it again. There are lots of other stories I could tell, but if I did, it would probably turn into a book.

History 5 Lesson 50

Electric Clock

Alexander Bain was born in Scotland in 1811, he was an apprentice to a clockmaker. Bain moved to London to sell services. He learned about electromagnetism. He invented the electric clock in 1840. Electricity kept the pendulum moving instead of weight. Electronic oscillators also used to replace pendulums. Synchronous clocks use Go-HZ power frequency. Crystal oscillators can be used to track time. They can be smaller, last longer, and more portable. Bain almost swindled out of his invention. Wheatstom’s attention was thwarted by Bain’s patent application. Parliament awarded Bain “damages”. Inventors after 1840 began developing different kinds of electric clocks. 


Samuel Slocum was born in Rhode Island in 1792. Learned carpentry then moved to London to make pins. He invented a machine that manufactured pins. Invented first stapler in 1841. Staples bind multiple sheets of paper together. U-shaped staples are driven through and their ends bend. Staplers used in numerous environments. They can also be used in construction and in medical application. George McGill spent 20 years improving versions of the stapler models in the early in the 1900s. 


John Herchel was born in England in 1792. Published a work on scientific methodology. Escaped to South Africa for a time in 1833. Published drawings of plants. He invented the blueprinting process in 1842. Blueprints are drawings, making it fast and easy to make copies of drawings. Chemically coated paper exposed to eight. Preserved perspectives on copies. Difficult to make changes to blueprints. The cyanotype process was used for drawings copies from  the beginning.  botanists used the technique to form images of plants. Cheaper than hiring drafters to hand copy. Scientists used the process, delinded after the 1940s. 

Grain Elevator 

Joseph Dart was born in Connecticut in 1799. He sold fers to Indian travellers, then moved into grain trading in Buffalo.  He partnered with Robert Dunbar. The two built the first grain elevator in 1844. Grain elevators lift grain up and into a silo. Dart’s was steam powered. About 8 times faster than manual unlading. Quickly unloaded, stored, and dispensed grain. Includes scale for weighing grain. Darts’s elevator built along a river. Word-of-mouth spread, Dumbar built elevators all over the world. Still prominent and important facilities today.      

English 6 Lesson 60

Hello everyone! Today’s assignment is to write a creative story about an event after the end of the book, in the later life of Amuba and Chebron. So here I go, I’m sorry if my writing style is nothing like G.A. Henty.

Chebron was sitting in the shade of a tree, just outside of the village of Rebu. He was thinking about the past events, he thought about how his arrow accidentally perched The Cat of Bubastes, and how just that one event had changed everything in his life. He thought about how he reacted when his father had shared that all of the gods he worshiped, were merely attributes of  one God. He also thought about the first few years he spent here, after Amuba was king, he became a little more busy with his duties. 

One night at dinner a cat had jumped up on the table everyone had tried to shoo it away, but the cat just sat there staring at them all. Finally someone picked up the cat and tossed it out. He chuckled to himself as he remembered his initial reaction to the treatment of the cat. For an instant his lifelong training and beliefs triggered, a horrified reaction to the treatment of the cat. Then he remembered his conversion over to the one the  god. And that the cat was merely an attribute of one God he worshiped. There were many other traditions and customs that Chebron had to learn, get used to the ways of the people of Rebu. But the cat incident stood out as a turning point in becoming a useful and happy person that he and Ruth had become, in the country of Rebu.     

History 5 Lesson 45

Steel Plow 

John Deere was born in Vermont in 1804. He went to a congregational college. He became a town blacksmith in 1825. Insight: polished needles are easier to use. Deere invented the steel plow in 1837. Prairie soil was extremely fertile. It stuck to the  mouldboard. Soil didn’t stick to the polished steel plow. Mouldboard was optimized to turn over the soil. The plow was self-cleaning, Deere tested his plow at his neighbors farm. Initial sales spread by word-of-mouth. He offered a risk-free guarantee. Built a factory near rivers and railroads. John Deere went into competition with International Harvester. 

Steam Shovel

Pelham, Massachusetts was settled in 1738 by Scottish Presbyterans. William Smith Otis was born in Pelham in 1813. Otas became fascinated with mechanical inventions. He invented the steam shovel at the age of 22 in 1835. He died within a year of  receiving the  patent. It’s basically a steam powered dirt-moving bucket. Steam pistons provide a source of motion. Like a movable crane. Holes could be dug deeper faster. Otis’ relatives hung onto the patent for 40 years. Railroads drove the steam shovel demand. Efficiency increased over time. It spread more rapidly after the patent expired. Made taller buildings possible.

Postage Stamp

Rowland Hill was born in England in 1795. He had influential family friends. He went to work for the government. Rowland promoted Priestley’s educational reform. He invented the postage stamp in 1838. It’s a piece of paper with adhesive backing. It shows that postage had been paid. Postage is based on weight not distance. Beautiful illustrations on them. Marked with postmarks to show they’ve been used. Postage reforms approved in 1839. Hill worked with Charles Bebbage to show costs weren’t from long distances. Postage reforms approved in 1839. Received support from merchants and businessmen. The postage system became a government monopoly. The price for sending mail fell and Demand increased.

Vulcanized Rubber

Charles Goodyear was born in Connecticut in 1800. He mechanically minded and entrepreneurial. Improved a company’s rubber life preservers. He was determined to solve a “sticky” problem. Mixing other chemicals was part of the process. Invented Vulcanized rubber in 1839. Vulcanization eliminates the stickiness. The refined rubber is weatherproof. Mix in a chemical life sulfur, then apply heat. Very durable, not brittle. Goodyear found a factory to produce rubber products. He died in 1860. A Goodyear company formed in 1898. It produced bicycle tires and poker chips, it expanded into wartime production with government contracts.              


English 6 Lesson 55

My assignment for today is to write a one to two paper summarizing the story that I have read this far. The story is called The Cat of Bubastes. Heads up: I have no clue how to pronounce the names of these people, sorry, otherwise I would set up something showing you how to pronounce their names.  

The story starts out in Rebu, where Prince Amuba and his father the king, along with other soldiers go out into battle against The Egyptians. Sadly the king falls in battle, Amuba almost dies too, but thanks to his faithful charioteer, Jethro, Amuba doesn’t and they make it back to the palace. When they get there they spend Several days waiting to see what the Egyptians would do, because the people of Rebu, had blocked the wooden gates with rocks, and any of the other gates around the wall. For a while the people of Rebu think that they are going to win. Unfortunately they don’t, the Egyptians capture the people and take them back to Egypt to be slaves. 

Jethro and Amuba are taken as well, but they both decide that they better not tell the king that Amuba was the prince of Rebu, they didn’ know what they’d do to him if they revealed that he was a prince. So they were sold as slaves to the high priest of Osiris.  But the priest was only gonna take Amuba, but Amuba got down on his knees and begged that the priest take Jethro too. Amuba said that Jethro had sorta become his father, since his actual father had died. The priest agreed, when they got back to the priest’s house Amuba became the servant and companion to Chebron, the son of Ameres, (the priest) Jethro didn’t talk much because he doesn’t know the Egyptian language as well as Amuba does. Ameres and Chebon found out that Amuba was the prince back in Rebu. They just like Jethro and Amuba agree not to tell anyone about this. Jethro and Amuba are shown around the house and showed the animals that they would have to take care of. Jethro and Amuba find out that their work isn’t hard, and they don’t suffer. Like they first thought they would when they were taken to Egypt. Ameres, Chebon, Amuba, and Jethro all go on a journey, sometime on their way, Chebon, Amuba, Jethro, along with some others, save this girl from a crocodile, when they return her home, her grandfather was very grateful. 

He had said that he was getting old and he would have no one to take care of Ruth. So Chebon said that when the old man died his father would gladly take Ruth into their home. And so they did, after the old man died Ruth went to the house of Ameres, where she was the companion and servant of Chebon’s little sister. Later on, Chebon and Amuba notice that there are some waterfowl missing, so they hide in the bushes with their bows and arrows, a hawk swoops down and tries to take a waterfowl, but Amuba and Chebon shoot at the hawk. Amuba killed the hawk and Chebon’s arrow hit a tree and landed in the cat house, it hit a cat and killed it. Chebon is freaking out because if you do that in Egypt there are serious consequences. And  to make matters worse the cat was the successor to the Cat of Bubastes. To Amuba a cat is a cat, but they are worshipped here, but not in Rebu. However Amuba understood Chebon’s situation, so he buried the cat, and left the door of the cat house open so it looked like it might have wandered off. Then he told Chebon to tell his father what happened, Amuba knew that his father would understand that it was an accident. Now they are discussing what they should do. 

I don’t know  what happens next but I hope that this whole thing will blow over soon.        

Science 6 Lesson 10

So my assignment was to read this article about this rock, and my mom said go ahead an write a paragraph about the rock so I did.

Gneiss is a crystalline rock that is not covered by a  layer of sedimentary rocks, and it is most commonly found in the lower parts of the continental crust. Most of the mineral grains of the gneiss rocks are visible to the naked eye. Germans first started using the word “gneiss”. Gneiss is a rock type that is defined by its oriented texture.

History 5 Lesson 35

Combine Harvester

Hiram Moore was born in 1801 in New Hampshire. His neighbor, hascal, had  fled the Freemasonry affair. Hascall had a farm, but no workers to reap the harvest. Hascall told Moore about his wife’s dream. Moore developed the combine harvester in 1834, it was a miniature mobile grain factory. A fan and Archimedes screw sifted grain from chaff. Grains were bagged at the top. 30 acres harvested per baile, cost reduction of 80% (From $5 to $1) Moore’s harvester (all-in-one) was really too early, it also had several drawbacks. Received monetare support from Hascall and a US representative. They sent some to California to harvest over 600 acres of wheat (1854) 


Solar Compass

Willam Austin Burt was born in 1792,  he developed interest in nautical navigation. His life’s calling: was to help mankind, He was the inventor of several devices. Burt became a surveyor in the US government. Invented solar compass to solve compass to solve problems of magnetic interference in 1835. The solar compass didn’t rely on earth’s magnetic field. It was a complete instrument with movable parts to determine position. Burt won an award from the Franklin Institute. He made continual improvements,  he demonstrated at world’s fair in London. The US government made it a standard tool for it’s surveyors. 


Franacis Pettit Smith was born in England in 1808. He became a farming apprentice, he was fascinated by boats as a child. Smith grew interested in how boats were powered. He invented the screw propeller in 1835. The screw propeller had advantages over the  paddle wheel. It was lighter and more efficient. It helped ships rock less. Made boats are easier to navigate. Propeller converts rotational motion into “thrust” (linear motion) Another inventor patented a propeller 6 weeks after Smith did. He Began advertising to the Navy. His rival’s model didn’t impress the Navy. Smith convinced Brunell to use the propeller instead of the paddlewheel. 

       Mechanical Computer 

Charles Babbage was born in London in 1791. He became self-taught in math. Books of logarithms and data tables were vital in many fields. They contained errors, and Babbage wanted to fix that. He designed his “Analytical Engine” in 1835. Expanded capabilities beyond computing logarithms. He was programmable using punched cards. He did most actions of modern computers (loops, branches) It even had date memory. It would print tables automatically and accurately. Babbage never built the machine, Ada Lovelace was fascinated by the concept. She became the world’s first programmer. Babbage’s machine never received much publicity during his lifetime.     

History 5 Lesson 30

So before you read the lesson thingy, I’m letting you guys know that there is only pictures on the first invention and the last invention, but that’s only because I couldn’t find good pictures of the other inventions.

Platform Scale 

Thaddeus Fairbanks was born in 1796 in Massachusetts. Built an iron foundry in 1823. His brother Erstus came to work for him. Thaddeus solved the problem of too large counterweights. It nuented the platform scale in 1830. Platform scales measure large and heavy objects.For example, there are big enough scales to weigh show steers. They take advantage of the advantage offered by levers. They were functional, there were no cranes required and they were very accurate. Demand for the scale was strong, and industrialization continued stimulating demand. Fairbanks began selling the scales overseas. Sales slowed during the Civil war. By the 1860s, the scales were in numerous industries. 

Here are some pictures of a cattle scale. As you can see there are many different versions of the cattle scale.

Railroad T-Rail

Robert Stevens was born in New Jersey in 1787, he worked with his father to build steamships. Stevens improved various steamship designs and became president of the railroad company in 1830. He invented the t-rail in 1831. The flanged t-rail: upside down “T”. The heavier it is the greater load it can carry. It’s strength comes from the  similarity to the I-beam. Railroad ties are spaced 18 inches apart, til plates fasted the rails to the ties. Sevens rail became an American standard. It was sturdy and easy to install. Charles vignoles introduced the design to Britain. It became known there as “vignoles” rail. 

Multi Loop Magnet 

Joseph Henry was born in New York in 1797. He became interested in science at 16. He also became a state engineer after college. Henry became a science professor in 1826 at age 29. He invented multiple- coil magnets in 1831. Non-insulated wire shorts out when touching each other. Henry could squeeze coils close to each other. N= loop, I=current, L=length. How to make a strong B? Henry built the world’s strongest electromagnet for Yale. Created early-version of motor, Smithsonian Institution founded in 1846. Increase and diffuse knowledge. 

Mechanical Reaper

Cyrus McCormick was born in Virginia in 1809. Cyrus’s father, Robert spent years trying to develop a mechanical reaper. Cyrus took inspiration from a British version. McCormick had a calling, his reaper was patented in 1834. McCormick’s reaper was pulled by horses. A “Corraige” that had a moving knife to cut the wheat. They tossed off to the side. The reaper reduced limits on farming output, this increased profit potential. McCormick’s reaper was slow to speak at first. Patent wars hindered its adoption too. He lopt the patent war, and decided to innovate. He implemented innovative marketing campaigns. Offered money-back guarantees to midwest farmers.         

History 5 Lesson 25


Charles Wheatstome was born in England in 1802. He invested in Valta’s book, he built his own battery for experimentation. He learned that sound is caused by vibrating pressure waves. He invented the microphone in 1827. The microphone converts sound  into electricity. It’s the same thing with the speakers in reverse. There’s a diaphragm attached to the coil. Magnet induces current in an oscillating wire coil. Electric signals amplified by other circuits. Wheatstone’s efforts led to modern microphone. Began working on electric telegraph in 1835. This led to the telephone in the 1870s. Thomas Edison invented the “carbon microphone” in 1977. 


William Austin Burt was born in Massachusetts in 1792. He became fascinated with sailing. He was devoted to his studies to suinces to help people. Burt invented astronomical instruments. He invented the typewriter in 1829. Typewriters imprinted neat writing into paper. Later models reduced jamming. People can type faster than they can write. Typewriters produced neat documents on demand. Burt’s typewriter wasn’t successful in his life to come up with a workable solution. The hansen writing ball was invented in 1865 Sholes and Glidden released the modern design in 1874. He had some drawbacks, writers began using them. 

Braille Reading System

Louis Braille was born in France in 1809. HE played in his father’s leather shop and he damaged his eye, the infection spread to his other eye. He became a very good student. He attended school for the blind. Braille wanted to help blind people become literate. He learned of the Barvier’s system and he devised his own in 1824. Braille allows blind people to read at standard speeds.  Brallie’s system improved reading speed over Barber’s. There are six raised dots in different patterns. Blind people can read proficiently and can access deep pools of knowledge. Founder of a school for blind invented his own reading system. Braille began publishing books on his new system in the 1830s. Resistance to Braille’s method because of loyalty to the old one. Braille’s students began spreading Braille’s system after his death.

Sewing Machine

Bartholemy Thimonsier was born in France in 1829. He opened a factory to produce military uniforms for the military. His factory survived for almost 200 years.Sewing machines stitch fabric together mechanically. The lock stitch is its “Secret”. It forms a very strong connection. The sewing machine makes it easy and fast to make it quality. Thimonmter’s machine spread throughout France, American Walter Hunt invented one in 1832. John fisher made a more useful model in 1846. Isaac Singer became successful in the business of selling sewing matches in 1856.