English 6 Lesson 90

My mom and her friend want to open a feed store together. I’m friends with my mom’s friend’s daughter. We’re close friends. We want to add a large and small animal vet clinic practice to the feedstore.

Our plan is after college and vet school is to work with an established vet, to gain experience. When we’re setting up our business we have agreed that I’d take care of the small animals. Elaina takes care of the goats. I take care of the sheep and together we will take care of the large animals. 

My friend Elaina and I are writing books in the present. Hopefully by the time we set up our business, we will be published. We would like to include books in the feed store that our moms will run.        

History 5 Lesson 80

Salt and Pepper Shakers 

Elaborate shakers were made of precious metals, before the shakers, people pinched or scooped with a spoon. Salt and pepper shakers were invented in 1858 by John Mason. Shakers are basic for seasoning food. It’s basically a glass jar with a screw-top lid. Lids contain different sized holes, they are easily refilled. It’s a sanitary way of sharing the seasonings. It became popular after Mason’s patent expired. Salt was difficult to shake out. Motor salt improved the formula in the 1920s. Ceramic shakers were sold during the Great Depression Diners began stockting them. 

    Mason Jar

Nicolas Appert invented the canning process. Before the mason jar they used champagne bottles, they canned all sorts of foods. Intended to supply Napoleon’s army. Canning became important to American families in 1830s. John Mason invented mason jar in 1858. A glass jar with screw top and a metal lid. The glass was strong, cheap soda-lime glass. Primarily used for home canning. Healing the food kills barterical and allows vacuum seals to form. Families can enjoy out-of-season food. Mostly used for canning fruits and jellies at first. But began to replace older methods of preservation. Popular among westward moving American selters. His patent expired in 1879, which led to mass production. Others made incremental improvements. 

Pencil Eraser

Two men discovered a rubber eraser in 1770. Priestly gave “rubber” its name. Edwards Nairne was a pro life English inventor. Accidentally discovered rubber is a good eraser. Hyman Lipman combined pencil and eraser in 1858. Erasers quickly remove pencil marks. Stored in a cylindrical, metal barrel, on the end of a pencil. Works by a combination of chemical and physical action. Modern erasers are made of various materials. Conveniently attached to pencils. Lipman sold his patent for $100,000. Richendorfer then sued Faber. The Supreme court ruled against Rickendorfer. A simple idea that was not obvious. The lawsuit helped make the invention visible. Most pencils and erasers by 1920s. 

Twine Binder

John Applesby was born in New York in 1840. John grew up on a farm while going to school. McCormick’s reaper was a big improvement to Appleby’s farming life. Applby invent twine binder 1858. Perfectly complemented reaping machines. Twine was effective but safe binding material. Mechanically knots automatically. Saved a lot of time and reduced field labor. Development stalled out during the civil war. Appleby honed his inventive skills on the battlefield. Received renewed investment interest in 1867 following a public demonstration. Built a manufacturing factory in 1872. Partnered with deering and McCormick, who licensed his patent.            

English 6 Lesson 85

I have no desire to travel around the world. But I would travel around to places in the United States, while being horseback. I would have to plan ahead, that way I could find a place for my horse, and a hotel for me. If I can’t get a hotel, I probably wouldn’t mind sleeping with my horse. There would be no point in bringing my phone, so I’d just leave it at home. I’d need a good horse who would not spook at the bags I’d put on my saddle that would hold my food, water, and most importantly clothes. I live in New Mexico, I’d travel to Arizona, and stay there for a few days. Then I’d go to Nevada, stay there for a few days at whatever town that I stop in, and maybe go to California. I’d travel through Oregon and Idaho,I wouldn’t stop just to be a tourist. I would only travel through there so I could go to Wyoming. Then I’d go to Colorado, and Kansas. I’d travel to Kansas, Missouri, and Tennessee. I might go to Virginia. For my route back I would go through North Carolina, then Georgia, to Mississippi. I would go through Arkansas and then Texas, and back home in New Mexico.   While there are some places other than the U.S I would like  to visit. I feel that this trip through the U.S on a horse sounds like more fun.    

History 5 Lesson 75

Condensed Milk 

Gail Borden Jr. was born in New York in 1801. He published a newspaper during the Texas Revolution. His wife died of yellow fever in 1844. He witnessed children dying because of bad milk. Borden invented condensed milk in 1856. Condensed and sweetened cow’s milk. Microorganisms cause milk to spoil. Heating the milk prevents spoilage. Sugar is added as a preservative. Useful in recipes and stores for a long time. Borden’s milk was known for its high quality. High demand from the word after the war ended. Production ramped up from competitors leading to a price crash. 

Sleeping Car 

Goerge Pullman was born in New York in 1831. He helped father move houses along the eire canal. He put his engineering skills to use in Chicago. Raised foundations out of the swamp. He invented the sleeping car in 1865. Provides living space on long train rides. Beds folded up during the daytime. On-board porters served customers. It was basically a hotel on wheels. It was a comfortable way to pass the time. Pullman took advantage of the one-time opportunity. 

Toilet Paper 

China invented lots of things early on. Including toilet paper. The Romans used a sponge on a stick, the American colonists used corn cobs. Joseph Gayetty invented toilet paper in 1857. Toilet paper is made of a combination of hard and soft wood fibers factories convert raw pulp into toilet paper. Gayetty marketed his paper beginning in 1857. Targeted customers with itchy pain. 

Washing Machine 

Washing clothes was time consuming. Women had to haul lots of water. Inventors began focusing on the process in the 18th century. Washboard made it easier to hand-wash clothes. Hamilton Smith invented the washing machine in 1858. Washing machines clean soiled clothes. Water and soap loosen the dirt. Agitators scrub the clothes. The washing machine saved a lot of time. Smith’s machine didn’t use electricity but it was easier than a washboard. An English machine was demonstrated at the World’s fair in 1862. Electricity applied in 1904. A million units sold annually by 1928.

English 6 Lesson 80

While reading Around The World In 80 Days, I found myself fascinated with India. While there were many locations to choose from India is my choice today. 

 I choose India because  because it’s interesting art pieces and clothing. When I see the pictures of the variety of colors on their clothes, it makes me think I’m walking through a rainbow. There’s bright orange, green, pink, orange and pink, all of them look so festive and fun, just looking at the colors makes me want to dance. Their art is interesting, from what I’ve seen of their art. Lots of it has to do with their religion. Like for example, The Hindu goddess Parvati, she’s the goddess of love, beauty, harmony, marriage, children and devotion. Or Nataraja, the Hindu god of dance. 

In the book, it described the varieties of food. The author’s discretion made me think I was there. There was this one dish that sounded really good to me, it was called Railway Mutton curry, it is a dish that is prepared with goat meat and vegetables. Just thinking about it makes me hungry.  

While I was taken around the world, India stood out the most to me, with all of its bright colors, and amazing sounding food. In my mind, I could hear the music and it made me want to dance and have a celebration.            

History 5 Lesson 70

Safety Elevator

Elisha Otis was born in Vermont in 1811. He moved his family to a river in town. He built a grist mill. Otis owned his own business but it failed. Then he invented the safety elevator in 1852. Elevators transport people and supplies up and down. There was a cab lifted by steel cable and balanced with countwightes. What happens if the cable snaps? The elevator used a backup ratchet system. Farliest elevators required manual lifting. Despite the apartment benefits, it was slow to sell initially. Otis rented space at the World’s Fair in 1853. He put on a dramatic demonstration. And the sales became steady. 


Alexander Wood was born in Scotland in 1817. Wood was trained in classical curriculum. He attained a medical degree at Edinburgh. He invented the syringe in 1853, he was inspired by bee stingers. Doctors use hypodermic syringes. It’s basically a “reciprocating pump”.  The syringe can precisely control the amount injected. It’s also used outside the medical industry. Even in industrial settings. It was popularized in France by a doctor. The one-Handed syringe was invented in 1899, then the glass syringe was invented in 1946, and finally disposable syringe in 1949. 

The Bessemer Process 

Henry Bessemer was born in England in 1813. He was a  prolific inventor like his dad. He grew interested in weapons due to the  Crimlam War. Napoleon III wanted more steel for better weapons. Bessemer steel-making process in 1855. The Bessemer process converts pig iron into steel. It forces hot air through molten iron to remove impurity. Steel contains 2% carbon. Made large-scale steel production feasible. This recused it’s price and made it affordable in large jobs. Bessemer licensed his patent to five English ironmakers. They couldn’t understand his process, so he opened his own factory. His process then spread to America in 1862. 

Egg- Beater

Ancient Egyptians invented a baking oven. It grew from family labor to profession in Rome. Guilds arose and fasted through the Middle Ages. The mixer was invented in 1856 by Ralph collier. Egg-beater is a kitchen mixer. It automates the repetitive nature of mixing. It’s a handheld device that makes mixing ingredients much easier.Electric mixers grew up out of hand mixers. Other inventors saw collier;s patent and pursued their own. An 1859 model was sold to a major company. Another innovative mixer followed the same pattern in 1870. Herbert John invented the KitchenAid mixer in 1918.

History 5 Lesson 65


Mining was important but hazardous. Early jackhammers were inspired by steam engines, developed by 1806. Jonathan couch invented the modern jackhammer in 1848. Jackhammers are “hammer drills”. The bit is pushed up and down pressurized air. The modern jackhammer can run on electricity. Steam engines couldn’t be installed inside mines. They produce hazardous gases. Couch’s assistant, Foul innovate the jackhammer to use compressed air. It could also be used to ventilate the mines. Demonstrations were performed to investors. 

Pin-Tumbler Lock

Linus Yale Sr. was born in Connecticut in 1797. He opened a lock shop in his 46’s. Yale invented pin-tumbler lock in 1843. Lock contains pins in a cylindrical drum. The key lines up pins to rotate the cylinder. Each pin has two parts. These locks are harder to pick than the old locks. They are easy to re-key. Linus Yale Jr. continued his father’s work. Became a mechanical engineer. His locks received widespread acclaim. He demonstrated them at the World’s Fair. Advertised 9 important benefits Yale exposed vulnerabilities in competitor’s locks.

Safety Pin

Walter Hunt was born in New York in 1796. Hunt invented a version of the sewing machine in 1832. He had experience with needles and the sewing industry. He invented the safety pin in 1849. Safety pins are simple folding needles. Pins have sharp heads that can stick you. The safety pin guards the head within a clasp. They fasten fabric and other materials together. Hunt made 27 times his debt level when he sold the patent. They were simple to manufacture. They were advertised to nurses and housewives for diapers and clothes. They were acquired by a large chemical company.


Leon Foucult was born in Paris in 1819. He became interested in Physics. He helped discover the speed of light. He did an experiment to prove rotation of earth in 1851. He invented the gyroscope in 1852. Gyroscope: spinning disc set inside gimbals. It seemed to defy laws of physics (they don’t). The gimbals allow rotation. They resist forces that try to turn them. Gyroscopes create stability. Foucult used gyroscopes to prove earth’s rotation. Electric motors applied in the 1860s. Gyroscopic compass built in 1904.          

English 6 Lesson 75

If I wanted to journey the world I would like to visit Rome, it’s the capital of Italy. I’ve started being intruded in Rome after I read Heroes of Olympus. And the same thing goes for Greece, after I read the Percy Jackson series I’ve wanted to visit these places. I’m interested in their mythology. I also would like to visit Egypt. I’m interested in Egyptian mythology. I don’t even know why but I think it’s interesting. How their beliefs are different from ours, along with the gods that they worship.   

History 5 Lesson 60

Rotary Printing Press

Riched Hoe was born in New York in 1812. He became  president of father’s press manufacturing company when he was 21. Invented the rotary press in 1843.The rotary press uses rotating drums. This allows a “Never-ending” stream of paper to be printed. The type is on the cylinder face. Hundreds of feet of paper can be loaded into the machine. In the 1820s “Newspapers” were published by political parties. Abell founded the Baltimore Sun in 1837. Abell was quick to adopt new technologies. The sun and other New York papers increased their circulation because of the printer.  The middle class began relying on newspapers for daily news. 


Abraham Gesmer was born in Canada in 1787, moved to England to become a doctor. Became interested in geology after meeting Charles Lyell. He practiced medicine and geology back home in Canada. He invented kerosene in 1846. Kerosene is a fuel and generalized trademark. Derived from petroleum. It was used for heaters, lamps, and jet fuel. Gerner formed a company in 1850 to sell lamps and oil. Expanded to the Northeastern US in 1854. An American inventor was competing with an inferior product. Meantulile Samuel Kier founded American petroleum industry. Supplies circumvented eatens by making kerosene from petroleum.


Ignaz Semmeluies was in 1818 in Budapest. He went into abstetics. Semmeluies worked for Vienna General Hospital. Decided to solve the problem of the two clinies, he observed and recorded. Breakthrough after friend’s death. Then he had the Eureka moment. He invented antiseptic use in 1847. Antiseptics kills germs. Germs cause infection, and antiseptics lowers death rates. Semmeluies reduced mortality from 18% to 2% in 1 month. His students spread the word, the establishment rejected. Repeated success in Budapest in 1852. He wrote letters to doctors across Europe. Pasteur’s germ theory reduced resistance later. Critice innored data. Conflicting theories of knowledge. 

 Gas Mask

Ancient Cultures used masks. A prussian intro created a mask for mining in 1799. Lewis P. Haslett invented the prototype of the modern version in 1847. It was probably intended to be used by Kentucky coal miners. Gas masks protect lungs from polluted air. Forces air through a filter. Particles and chemical vapors. Separate oxygen tanks may be required. Enable work in hazardous environments. Germans launched chemical weapons in World War 1.  A canadaion doctor invented a gas mask the troops. An american inventor created a mask too for American troops. The modern gas mask was invented in 1944. 

English 6 Lesson 70

Hello to the person reading this! My assignment for today was to write a one to write about a favorite book I have read or write about a good movie I have watched. This one is kinda hard for me, since I have multiple favorite movies and books. But I guess I’ll kind of be choosing both, sort of. I’m comparing my favorite book Percy Jackson, to the two movies that were made based off of the books. Warning, there are gonna be some spoilers if you haven’t read the books and you want to read the books. There are some spoilers, so just a heads up.

Now, everyone knows that books are always better than movies, although, I have to say the Harry Potter movies were good, it’s been a while since I’ve read the books, but anyway, they’re good. So I watched the Percy Jackson movies before I read the books and I loved the movies. That was until I read the books! Now, I love the books more than the movies! As in I no longer like the movies, I get it some people like the movies. But me and a friend just have a lot of problems with the movies. 

It doesn’t give me the same feeling like it does when I’m reading the books. I don’t even know how to describe the feeling I get when I read the books, but it just isn’t the same. In the movies the second movie and the second book are different, the people who made the movie mixed a certain part in the last book with the second movie the Titan, Kronos came back, in the last book. In the second movie Kronos came back, it bugs me that they did that! There’s a lot more, I could tell, you. But I guess I should tell you what the book is about. There’s three different  series, all of them written by American author Rick Riordan. The first one is called Percy Jackson and the Olympians aka PJO. Is about how Percy discovers  that he is demigod, a demigod is half God half mortal. He goes on quests, the main enemy they have to fight is Kronos. The second series is called The Heroes of Olympus, Roman and Greek demigods must learn to work together in order to defeat Gaea the earth goddess. And the third series, called Trials of Apollo, I’ve barely gotten into that book yet so I don’t have that much information on it yet.