TCP/ IP Internet Protocol
Telephones use circuit switching. Packet switching was developed in the 1960s. Network protocol improved for ARPANET computers. HOw to allow satellites to talk to ARPANET. TCP/IP allows computers to talk over the network. Four “layers”: hardware Internet, transport application. Routers forward “packets” to nodes. Stanford and London communicated in 1972. Big companies adopted it. Companies TCP/IP add-ons for operating systems. Microsoft included it for free beginning with Windows 95.
Graphical User Interface
Sutherland from ARPANET developed sketchpad. Doug Engelbart invented the mouse in 1960. Xerox opened PARC in 1969. GuI invented at RARC in 1973. GUI: Interface between humans and computers. Mouse translates human motion into digital commands. Allows people to easily use computers. It maximizes user efficiency. Xerox’s Alto was too expensive. Word spread through silicon valley about it. Steve Jobs and Apple toured PAR in 1979. Jobs developed Lisa, $9,995. Motorola’s 6800 processor was powerful. Apple released Macintosh in 1989.
Steve Jobs was born in 1955, Steve’s adopted father Paul was a handyman. Steve learned about details from his dad. He made his parents move to escape bullies. Met Steve Wozniak at a new school in cupertino. Went to work for Atari. Co-founded apple computer in 1976. Apple computers led computing and consumer electronics. Jobs left them, returned to Apple and launched iMac, ipd, iphone, iPad. Found NEXT after Apple. He developed Pixar into a major movie production company. Then became Disney’s largest shareholder in 2006. Jobs understood the purpose. Developed a trademark look and teased his audience. There were catchy commercials. Understood the point of entrepreneurship.
Bill Gates was born in 1955. He began programming in PASIC when 13 year old. Bill Gates and Pual Allen were early hackers. Gates wrote a program that put him in class with all the pretty girls. He went to Harvard and met Steve Ballmer. He read about Altair in 1975. Dropped out of HArvard to develop software for Altair. Founded Microsoft in 1976. Gates stuck with Microsoft from 1975 to 2008/2012. Microsoft office software is used by billions of people. Brought welsbrowsing to the mainstream privslic with windows. Gates kept Microsoft in line with its mission. Hada fiery personality, Ired Steve Ballmer in 1980. Ballmer led Microdot through the Xbox launch. Gates’s wife Melinda convinced him to form the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.