History 5 Lesson 170

TCP/ IP Internet Protocol

Telephones use circuit switching. Packet switching was developed in the 1960s. Network protocol improved for ARPANET computers. HOw to allow satellites to talk to ARPANET. TCP/IP allows computers to talk over the network. Four “layers”: hardware Internet, transport application. Routers forward “packets” to nodes. Stanford and London communicated in 1972. Big companies adopted it. Companies TCP/IP add-ons for operating systems. Microsoft included it for free beginning with Windows 95.

Graphical User Interface

Sutherland from ARPANET developed sketchpad. Doug Engelbart invented the mouse in 1960. Xerox opened PARC in 1969. GuI invented at RARC in 1973. GUI: Interface between humans and computers. Mouse translates human motion into digital commands. Allows people to easily use computers. It maximizes user efficiency. Xerox’s Alto was too expensive. Word spread through silicon valley about it. Steve Jobs and Apple toured PAR in 1979. Jobs developed Lisa, $9,995. Motorola’s 6800 processor was powerful. Apple released Macintosh in 1989.

Steve Jobs  

Steve Jobs was born in 1955, Steve’s adopted father Paul was a handyman. Steve learned about details from his dad. He made his parents move to escape bullies. Met Steve Wozniak at a new school in cupertino. Went to work for Atari. Co-founded apple computer in 1976. Apple computers led computing and consumer electronics. Jobs left them, returned to Apple and launched iMac, ipd, iphone, iPad.  Found NEXT after Apple. He developed Pixar into a major movie production company. Then became Disney’s largest shareholder in 2006. Jobs understood the purpose. Developed a trademark look and teased his audience. There were catchy commercials. Understood the point of entrepreneurship. 

Bill Gates 

Bill Gates was born in 1955. He began programming in PASIC when 13 year old. Bill Gates and Pual Allen were early hackers. Gates wrote a program that put him in class with all the pretty girls. He went to Harvard and met Steve Ballmer. He read about Altair in 1975. Dropped out of HArvard to develop software for Altair. Founded Microsoft in 1976. Gates stuck with Microsoft from 1975 to 2008/2012. Microsoft office software is used by billions of people. Brought welsbrowsing to the mainstream privslic with windows. Gates kept Microsoft in line with its mission. Hada fiery personality, Ired Steve Ballmer in 1980. Ballmer led Microdot through the Xbox launch. Gates’s wife Melinda convinced him to form the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

History 5 Lesson 165


Thomson was born in NEw Orleans in 1943. Ritch was born in New York in 1941. They were the last of the Bell Labs engines to leave Muitics. Thompson kept playing on his computer. They invented the Unix in 1969. UNIX doesn’t matter what hardware it runs on. Programs do just one thing. Output becomes input. Rewrite and delete often. Build more tools, don’t just add people. Kerns shell programs. Shell: comets user to kernel. Hierarchical life system. Design for multiple users and security. Bell Lab’s used unix at work. Invented “C” programming language to port to other computers. Bell Labs licensed to other companies. College students took it with them to the business world. Steve Jobs built a Unix-based operating system called NeXISTEP. 


Robert Noyce, founder of Intel. Busicom asked Intel to build a processor for their calculator in 1969. Intel identified problems. Intel revised the chip’s design and reduced its complexity. Created the first microprocessor the 4004 in 1971. Microprocessor: processing and control. ALU is a fundamental building block. ALUs can be combined to make FPUs GPUs. Control unit driven by a crystal clock manages operations. Same processor design can be used in multiple applications. Busicom released exclusive rights of 4004 to Intel. Advertised programmable computer on a chip. Followed up with an 8-bit processor that led Altair. With a sparkling microcomputer. Apple computer founded in 1976. 

Video Game Console 

Ralph Baer was born in Germany in 1922. Climbed the electronic industry. Began working on TV projects for the military in the 1950s. Came up with the idea for a TV game in 1966.  He convinced the CEO to approve more funding. Magnavox Odyssey was released in 1972. Video game console: Computer that displays games on TV. Wireless controllers gyroscope. Provides entertainment experience possible. Odyssey sold pretty well. Pon appeared in 1972. Atew 2600 released in 1977. Great video game crash of 1983. Nintendo revived the industry with the NES in 1985. 


First VCRS released to the commercial industry in 1956. The JVC company wanted to develop records for consumers. Sony developed Betamax JVC developed VHS. Betmans could only record 1 hour. The VHS-playing VCR was released in the US in 1977. Tape heads transfer information from tape to screen. The heads spin ganist magnetic tape. Magnetic fields in the tape head read or write data to and from tape.  Several consumer benefits. It was programmable. It became cheaper to record home movies. Initial resistance from movie studios. Consumers wanted longer recording time. RcA released a 4-hour recorder Several competing VHS models appeared.  

History 5 Lesson 160

Just a heads up, this might be not the best essay, because I was a little rushed when writing it.

Polio Vaccine 

Jonas Salk was born in New York City in 1914. He became a medical researcher. He learned about viruses under other doctors. There were grants that funded polio research. Salk created the polio vaccine in 1955. Polio vaccine prevents you from getting polio. Made using inactivated or weakened (But live) Virus. The oral form is cheaper. Saves people from needless crippling. People cried when the vaccine was announced. Salk became world famous. A million doses were pre-ordered. Mass production was handled by British scientists. It was eliminated in most of the world by 2003. 

Intermodal Containers

Malcolm Mclean was born in North Carolina in 1913. He wanted to ship trucks by boat. Designed a container instead. He used a bank loan to buy WW2 tanks. Launched intermodal container ship in 1956. “Intermodal” is easily transportable. It drastically reduces labor cost. Simpilifles shipping process. They were stackable. Can haul all kinds of materials. The cost of shipping fell. Unions were unhappy. McLean expanded his patent to this International. Organization for standardization. 

Integrated Circuit

Several people were involved in the invention of the integrated circuit. Several large companies wanting to miniaturize transistors Shockly turned Santa Clara into “silicon Valley” Shockley’s “traitors” founded Fairchild semiconductors. Noyce and Kilsy invented the integrated circuit in 1959. Integrated circuits are flat chips packed full of transistors. High performance, low cost. “Photo Masking” is like silicon blueprinting. Placed over silicon wafers and exposed to light. One transistor has about 10 manufacturers. Us Air Force and Wavy used it as tech. NANA’s Apollo guidance computer. Allows astronauts to control the spaceship. Government demand drives down prices. Led to industrial and commercial uses.


Charles Townes was born in South Carolina in 1915. He invented the master in 1953. Could coined the term “LASER” in 1957. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser light is coherent. Electrons give up energy to move closer to the nucleus. “Lasint” forces them to do this. Beam contains high, focused energy. Other companies built their own lasers. Semiconductor lasers appeared in 1962. Then the barcode scanner appeared in 1974.     

English 6 Lesson 150

A challenge my family faced, or more like I faced, was when our clippers quit working. I consider this a big problem, while others might think it’s not a big deal. I was touching up my lamb and I still had two others I had to shear. My dad was on a fire so he couldn’t help. My mom was in town and my grandma (my grandparents are my only neighbors while I live.) had to stay with my grandpa. So I was on my own for shearing my lambs for Sothern Fair. I was just finishing touching up his head when he decided he wanted to try and run away. I didn’t have his halter on. Shearing a lamb’s head with their halter on is hard that’s why I take it off. Anyway he was slipping from my grasp so I turned off the clippers and set them on the table. Only I didn;t set them fair enough away from the edge, my lamb stepped on the cord of the clippers and ended up yanking the clippers off of the table, I already had the halter on my lamb so I tried catching the clippers before they hit the cement. 

Unfortunately they hit the ground, freaking out, I tried turning them on. Nothing. How was I gonna finish shearing? These were the bigger clippers that we used for the lamb’s body and parts of their head before we switched to a little set of clippers. Like I said earlier I was touching him up, I had already shorn him yesterday but there were parts I had missed. And I still had two more to shear! Now mangerly pancking I set the clipper back on the table so I can tie up the lamb so see what I can do. I tried seeing if maybe they had gotten unplugged, but everything was plugged in. I pulled out my phone and searched up what to do if your clippers aren’t working. I found nothing helpful. Packing even more, I sat down on the concrete, thinking about what I could do. I tried turning them on again with no luck. 

I ended up crying there on the cold cement, I knew that any show equipment was expensive and that we don’t have enough money to buy more clippers. We got lucky with these. I was freaking out thinking mom was gonna be mad at me. I don’t know how long I sat there rocking back and forth screaming and crying but finally I decided to call my grandma, since I didn’t want to walk to her house, and leave my lamb ties where he was. I knew that all of my lambs were escape artists, they knew how to untie themselves and take off their halters. 

So using the landline phone I had brought outside in case mom called me, I dialed my grandma’s house phone number. I told her what happened and it turned out somehow I blew a breaker, but the clippers still didn’t work, which caused me to cry again. Yes I know I’m crying a lot, but this was very stressful. After a while I tried my best using the little clippers to shear my lamb. When mom’s truck pulled up at the house, I freaked out again. She came to the back of the house where I had everything set up to wash and shear my lambs. I started to cry…again, telling her what happened and that I was sorry and that I should’ve tried harder to catch the clippers. While my grandma was patting my arm and telling me it would be ok, obviously it was NOT ok. Mom said that I probably just needed a break, and probably I needed to eat. She said that she would try and fix the clippers and then shear the lamb. I realized I hadn’t eaten anything but breakfast but that was like 6 in the morning. Now it was 3 in the afternoon. 

After I got done eating I went back to my house, (I went to grandparents house because my grandma made pizza) mom couldn’t fix the clipper weather we would just have to wait until dad gets back so he could fix them, because one of my lambs did this last year and the clippers did the same thing, dad was able to fix them. Mom texted some of our show family, (Our friends who also show animals with us but are more like family than friends) someone had a set of clippers that we could use. Which was good cause even though my lamb’s wool hadn’t grown that much, we still needed to shear them. I  suggested that we just leave it and show them anyway. Mom wanted to just not take the lambs, but I wanted to even though they needed to be shorn. We ended up getting them all sheared. Thanks to our friend who had a set of clippers, ok so the point of this really long story was mom was also freaking out about this so I suggested that we just not shear them because they looked ok enough to show at Sothern then when dad gets home which would be in time for county fair he could fix the clippers and when could shear them.    

Science 6 Lesson 125

So I know that there’s not many of my 6th grade science projects are on here but that’s because I’ve done a lot of reading for Science, which I don’t mind because I love to read, now onto the assignment. I was supposed to got to a farm or a ranch and ask some questions, I live on a ranch and we farm a little so I just asked my dad the questions.

  1. What are some practices that limits soil erosion and water pollution? You can use cover crops so that when it rains your fields don’t erode and all of the sediment and the soil doesn’t get in the streams.

2. What are some methods used to conserve the natural resources? For Farming: Use a drip system, it has pipes that goes under the ground so the water reaches the roots of the plants. If the water was just placed on top, where the water could evaporate. So that uses more water just to make sure that your crop is well watered. For Ranching: There’s a saying take half leave half. That just means if your grazing a pasture, you want to let your cattle or whatever livestock you have graze half of it then leave half so put then in another pasture. That way the grass can grow, the whole cycle kind repeats itself.

3. What would happen differently if these methods were not used. If you didn’t have a cover crop your fields would erode, the wind would take away all of the soil, so you can’t plant anything for next year. The same thing would happen if you didn’t use the take half leave half method.

History 5 Lesson 150 

Crystal Oscillator

Series of incremental discoveries. Curies discovered piezoelectricity. Used it to build instruments for detecting radioactivity. Piezoelectricity drew Scientific and invented the first oscillator in 1917. Dr.Cady invented his own in 1920. Patent lawsuits ensued.Solid materials can produce electricity when squeezed. Also works in reverse. Crystals can generate oscillating signals with low power. Multiply and divide with low power. Multiply and divide the output frequencies. Important as filters in transmitters and receivers. Better radios appeared in the 1920s. It was used in most radio stations by 1926. Made their way into clocks. Us Army converted its radio equipment to crystal in 1939. The wristwatch appeared in 1969. Critical in all electronics after the 1960s. 

George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver was born in the 1860s. Became a Christian as a boy, learned to give back to others. Earning a college education, he went to work for Booker T. Washington. He ran experimental farms. Mostly known for his farming techniques. Pioneered crop rotation in the South. Promoted peanut recipes Mobile classroom for teaching farmers. Became famous for work with peanuts. Teddy Roosevelt became an admirer, he was honored by the Royal Society of Arts in England. Became nationally known after speaking before congress in 1929. 

Yagi Uda Antenna 

Tohoku university in Japan. Hidetsugu Yagi, researched radio waves. Shintaro Uda studied under Yagi. He invented the Yagi Uda antenna in 1926. Radio waves induce currents in antennas. Yagi Uda increases directivity. It is  a modified dipole, the reflector and directors focus. It was cheap to make. IT was published in an English article in 1928. It was used when broadcasting went mainstream after the war. Yagi Uda antenna works well in VHF and UHF Frequency bands. 


Alexander Fleming was born in Scotland in 1881. Studied under a vaccine professor. He saw hundreds of wounded soldiers die during WWI. Studied bacteria for the next 14 years. Invented Penicillin in 1929. Penicillin can be swallowed or injected. It’s a fungus that kills bacteria. It’s grown in large tanks. 13 years would pass until the first patient was saved. Hard to grow an excited body quickly. Dr. Florey looked up the project in 1938. He worked with Ameraicans to mass produce it.            

History 5 Lesson 145

Before I start on the inventions for the week (Which I may or may not have forgotten to post) I just realized that I haven’t posted in a while, which not that I think any of you minded. I was busy with showing my animals and only on this last Sunday was I done for the year. I’m sorry for not posting this sooner, as I said earlier I was really busy and I wasn’t doing much school because of it, but now I’m done with showing, (For now) and I can get back to school, it might take me a while though, because as of right now, all I’m doing is one subject a day maybe two. Because our family reunion is coming up! Along with my birthday and a rodeo. Our last rodeo of the season, or at least out local rodeo association’s season. My mom said that there might be some rodeos this Winter, which I’m excited for! Now onto the inventions this week! Or whenever it was that I was supposed to post this.

Safety Razor 

King Camp Gilltte was born in Wisconsin in 1855. He lived through the Great Chicago Fire. He worked as a cork salesman. He noticed people bought disposable products. Applied that to the razor. Invented a safety razor in 1901. Safety razors cleanly shave skin. It uses a protective guard to prevent injury. It uses disposable blades. Permanently handle disposable blades. He put his picture on ads. It became successful because of low prices. In the 1920s refocus on research. Razor innovations appeared in 1998.


The Wright Brothers were born in 1878. They were inspired by Otto Lilienthal. They focused on aircraft control systems. They took experience from making bicycles. Balance was key. They studied birds. Created “Unstable” Wing designs. They built wind tunnels. A thousand glides in 1902. Propeller engines and jet turbines. They carry passengers and cargo great distances quickly. It received little newspaper attention. There was a public event in 1904. The Wrights secured a government contract in 1908.

Vacuum Tube 

John Rleming was born in England in 1849. He wanted to be an engineer at 11. Studied under Maxwell. Worked in Edison’s company then under Marconi. Invented Vacuum tube in 1904. Thermionic emission: electrons flow from hot filament. Receptor plate is cool and eleives electrons. It’s used to convert AC to DC. Block negative current. It can be used to build radio demodulators. Extracts information from AM signal. Fleming’s value used by Marconi. Published paper in 1905. 

The Model T

Henry Ford was born in Michigan in 1863. Learned to maintain portable steam engines. Built his quartile in 1896. Edison encouraged pursuits. Ford’s race car in 1902 promoted his brand. Ford invented the Model T in 1908. The Model T was the first affordable car. Henry Ford said “Any color you want, as long as it’s black.” Perfected assembly line and interchangeable parts. It gave families freedom. Succeeded because of the price. One new car every 3 minutes. From $ 825 to $260 in 16 years. Ford didn’t even have time to advertise for a long time.  

The Apocalypse of 2020 Part 6

Like I said in my last post it was gonna be a while for me to figure what was gonna happen next. And I’m sorry I didn’t think it would take me this long to figure out what happens next. But I talked to my friend and together we came up with some ideas. We were trying to think of weapons for all of the team, since Ava had her bat and we figured out what Ryan’s weapon was gonna be, but we haven’t figured out the others. We made Ryan’s to fit his personalty, and that’s what we want to do with everyone else. If you have any ideas let me know, I will greatly appreciate it. Sorry again, I had kinda forgotten about this story because I have several others I’m was working on and I recently got five show lambs and a show steer and all of them are a lot of work, so I haven’t found any time to write. Which really sucked because I love to write. Anyway I’m sure you are all like ‘enough with the excuses  get to the story!’ So I’ll quite talking and let you read to story.

“I guess he does.” I say. That night Benjamin slept on the couch which was fine with me. We didn’t build a room for him because Benjamin slept in the lab we built for him. He stayed there for long periods of time and only came out when it was time to eat. It was time to go out and get more supplies. I sigh, then climb down the rope ladder. 

“Guys, let’s go!” I bounce on the balls of my feet. Hurry up, hurry up. I pull out my bat and I examine the nails in it. I need to add more. Finally everyone climbs down. 

“Ok, we are all gonna go to the mall and get what we need there then we’ll go to the grocery store.” They nod. And we went to the mall. I got some clothes, everyone else did too then for some reason Ryan decided to duck off and grab a pack of pencils, we don’t even use them that much anymore. When we get to the grocery Ryan grabs some soup cans. We don’t eat soup, what was he up to? 


As I was grabbing the cans I needed for my weapons I was planning on building Emily can up to me, 

“Whatcha doing?” Her hands were behind her back and her black hair was pulled up in her signature bun. Today she wore a black tank top with tan shorts. I turned to face her with a smirk on my face.

“You’ll see when we get home.” She arched an eyebrow questionly at me.  

“Here.” She grabbed the cans from my hands and set them down on the ground. She grabs my hand and leads me to the back of the store. Uh, what’s she doing?! When we get to the back of the store she turns to me. God it was dark over here. That’s when Emily pushed me against the wall. Ah! What was she doing, her face was getting really close to mine. Then she kissed me! She freaking kissed me! She tasted like cotton candy! I love cotton candy! I love the way she tasted. I was shocked at first, but then my hands moved to her waist pulling her close to me. Her arms looped around my neck and her fingers tangled in my hair. She looked at me for a second then leaned in to kiss me again, only this time I beat her to it! We only pulled apart when the need for air became too much. 

“Woah.” I said, still holding Emily close to me, hehe, she smelled like apples and cinnamon.  

“Yeah,” Emily muttered, 

“Excuse us, but we need to head back, it’ll be getting dark soon and that’s when the zombies  get really bad out here.”  Jason said, Emily sighs dramatically, 

“I was not done here, can’t you give us a few more minutes.” 

“Yeah, man, come on! I finally got a girl to like me! Don’t ruin the moment!” I complained. Jason and Ava laughed.

“You guys didn’t let us stay and finish our moment,” Ava said, 

“Truth be told, school is even scarier now that there’s no other people aside from the zombies. I wanted out of there, in this dark corner it’s not so bad.” I say, Emily let go on me but she held my hand instead. I menatlly sighed, I liked it a lot better when she was holding onto me, not just holding my hands, oh well, I’m sure she wouldn’t mind if we cuddled on the couch! 

“Can we go? Listing four gives me a headache!” Benjamin wines.

“Nobody cares about what you think Benjamin!” I snapped. He rolled his eyes, and walked off, but not before flipping us off. I flipped him off then led Emily by the hand all the way home. I got a girl to like me! I mean it DID take a zombie apocalypse for that to happen but still, I got a hot girl to like me! I hummed to a song the whole way home, man this really put me in a good mood. Emily seemed to be in a good mood too, I did a little dance as I made my way to the couch setting done the now empty soup cans, a drill, my pack of pencils, and a pencil sharpener.         

“Ryan what are you doing?” Emily asks me as she sits next to me. 

“You’ll see.” I stick my tongue out of the corner of my mouth slightly. When I’m done I hold up the spiky can, 

“This is what I’m using to fight off the zombies.” I held up the can proudly. She shakes her head, and lets out a small chuckle, I grab the other soup can and do the same thing to it until I have two spiky soup can weapons!  

History 5 Lesson 140

Diesel Engine 

Rudolf Diesel was born in France in 1858. He Went into engineering school when he was 14. He began experimenting with ammonia engines. Invented Diesel engine based on Carnot cycle in 1893. Diesel engines don’t need a spark to ignite. It Uses hot compressed air. Diesel fuel specially designed to work in Diesel engines. More fuel efficient and reliable than gasoline engines. It produces high torque at RPMs. The commercial world brought into Diesel engines immediately in 1894. Built 23 HP engine in 1896. Diesel-powered ships appeared in 1903. Germas built diesel-powered U-boats in 1912. Diesel engines began replying to steam locomotives in the 1910s.


Several mouse traps had been built in the 1800s. James patented a trap in 1879. “Little Nipper”  patented in 1898 in Britain. William C. Hooker invented the modern mousetrap in 1894. Mouse Traps kill mice. Spring-loaded bar swings down and breaks the neck of the mouse. The traps effectively eliminate the mice. It prevents further spread of disease from the mice. Patent holders sold to bigger companies. Hooker and Mast manufactured improved versions. Over 4,400 patents developed from 1838 to 1996. 


Marconi was born in Italy  in 1874. He became interested in Hertr’s experiments. Noticed no one applying waves practically. Applied them to wireless telegraphy. He built his own transmitters at home. He invented the radio in 1895. Radio waves are eaunchent from antennas. From 3 KHZ to 300 GHZ. AM and FM are important. Amplitude modulation changes the wave’s strength. Frequency modulation changes the wave’s frequency. AM is good for voice FM is for music. It transmits to multiple listeners at once. Other methods besides AM and FM. Italy wasn’t interested at first. The British were interested. Public lectures by the British government made Marconin world-famous. Gained publicity from the Titanic accident. 

Semi-Automatic Shotgun

John Browning was born in Utah in 1855. He built his first rifle in 1878. Winchester purchased this model from Browning. Browning developed lever action rifles and pump-action shotguns. He invented the semi Automatic Auto- 5 shotguns in 1898. The semi-auto shotgun automatically loads the next shell after firing. There were several methods for doing so. Easier and quicker to fire shotgun rounds. Advertised to hunters and sportsmen. Was legendary by the 1940s. Manufactured for 100 years until 1998.         

History 5 Lesson 135


John Pemberton was born in George in 1831. He fought in the Civil War. He became addicted to morphine after he got saber slashed. He relished his addiction and experimented with coca wines. It helped with the morphine addiction. Unfortunately a law passed for no one to have any alcoholic beverage. So Pemberton had to think of something else for his morphine addiction. Pemberton invented coca-cola in 1886. Coca-cola is a sweet, carbonated drink. And my favorite soda! Back to the history now! It contains caffeine from kola nuts. Another reason why it’s so rare for me to have one. It has caffeine in it! Back to the history…again. Coca-cola originally contained cocaine. Then cocaine was removed in 1903. While we know the general ingredients of coca-cola the whole recipe is a secret. 

Pemberton sold coke in a pharmacy in 1886. Coca-cola company founded in 1892. Advertised on outdoor wall painting. Sopislacted image Advertised drink benefits. 

Induction Motor

Nickola Tesla was born in the Austrian Empire in 1856. Wanted to become an engineer. He went to work with Edison’s company. Founded Tesla Electric company in 1887. Invented induction motor in 1888. Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Stator and rotor.  Rotating magnetic fields make the motor turn. Ac power produces the fields. Sator fields induce magnetic fields in the rotor. The motor produces torque. Turns fans and pumps. Tesla’s investors marketed his motor. He demonstrated to engineers and businessmen. Licensed motor to Westinghouse. Led to the end of war of Currents. 90% of motors are induction motors.

Ballpoint Pen

John J. Loud was born in MAssachusetts in 1844. He was a trained lawyer, but went into banking with his father Interested in genealogy and church activities. Invented ballpoint pen in 1888. Small metal ball used as tip. Gravity and capillary action moves ink through the pen. Two inks: oil-based and water based. Useful on a wide variety of surfaces. Loud’s design worked as intended. He took developments in Chemistry to prevent ink from leaking. Major breakthrough came in 1938 with Biro’s pen. 


Whitcomb Judson was born in Chicago in 1846. He began patenting inventions in the 1880s. He was tired of buttoning his shoes. He invented the zipper in 1890. The zipper is two strips of fabric together. Little teeth are locked together. A y-channel slider. Quick and easy to seal-up openings in clothes. Useful fo carges storage too. Jusdson founded a company advertised at Chicago world’s fair in 1893. It continued improving. Hired an electrical engineer named sunback 1906. He developed modern design by 1923. BF Goodrich put them on their rubber boots. Levi put on their jeans in 1947.