History 5 Lesson 70

Safety Elevator

Elisha Otis was born in Vermont in 1811. He moved his family to a river in town. He built a grist mill. Otis owned his own business but it failed. Then he invented the safety elevator in 1852. Elevators transport people and supplies up and down. There was a cab lifted by steel cable and balanced with countwightes. What happens if the cable snaps? The elevator used a backup ratchet system. Farliest elevators required manual lifting. Despite the apartment benefits, it was slow to sell initially. Otis rented space at the World’s Fair in 1853. He put on a dramatic demonstration. And the sales became steady. 


Alexander Wood was born in Scotland in 1817. Wood was trained in classical curriculum. He attained a medical degree at Edinburgh. He invented the syringe in 1853, he was inspired by bee stingers. Doctors use hypodermic syringes. It’s basically a “reciprocating pump”.  The syringe can precisely control the amount injected. It’s also used outside the medical industry. Even in industrial settings. It was popularized in France by a doctor. The one-Handed syringe was invented in 1899, then the glass syringe was invented in 1946, and finally disposable syringe in 1949. 

The Bessemer Process 

Henry Bessemer was born in England in 1813. He was a  prolific inventor like his dad. He grew interested in weapons due to the  Crimlam War. Napoleon III wanted more steel for better weapons. Bessemer steel-making process in 1855. The Bessemer process converts pig iron into steel. It forces hot air through molten iron to remove impurity. Steel contains 2% carbon. Made large-scale steel production feasible. This recused it’s price and made it affordable in large jobs. Bessemer licensed his patent to five English ironmakers. They couldn’t understand his process, so he opened his own factory. His process then spread to America in 1862. 

Egg- Beater

Ancient Egyptians invented a baking oven. It grew from family labor to profession in Rome. Guilds arose and fasted through the Middle Ages. The mixer was invented in 1856 by Ralph collier. Egg-beater is a kitchen mixer. It automates the repetitive nature of mixing. It’s a handheld device that makes mixing ingredients much easier.Electric mixers grew up out of hand mixers. Other inventors saw collier;s patent and pursued their own. An 1859 model was sold to a major company. Another innovative mixer followed the same pattern in 1870. Herbert John invented the KitchenAid mixer in 1918.

History 5 Lesson 65


Mining was important but hazardous. Early jackhammers were inspired by steam engines, developed by 1806. Jonathan couch invented the modern jackhammer in 1848. Jackhammers are “hammer drills”. The bit is pushed up and down pressurized air. The modern jackhammer can run on electricity. Steam engines couldn’t be installed inside mines. They produce hazardous gases. Couch’s assistant, Foul innovate the jackhammer to use compressed air. It could also be used to ventilate the mines. Demonstrations were performed to investors. 

Pin-Tumbler Lock

Linus Yale Sr. was born in Connecticut in 1797. He opened a lock shop in his 46’s. Yale invented pin-tumbler lock in 1843. Lock contains pins in a cylindrical drum. The key lines up pins to rotate the cylinder. Each pin has two parts. These locks are harder to pick than the old locks. They are easy to re-key. Linus Yale Jr. continued his father’s work. Became a mechanical engineer. His locks received widespread acclaim. He demonstrated them at the World’s Fair. Advertised 9 important benefits Yale exposed vulnerabilities in competitor’s locks.

Safety Pin

Walter Hunt was born in New York in 1796. Hunt invented a version of the sewing machine in 1832. He had experience with needles and the sewing industry. He invented the safety pin in 1849. Safety pins are simple folding needles. Pins have sharp heads that can stick you. The safety pin guards the head within a clasp. They fasten fabric and other materials together. Hunt made 27 times his debt level when he sold the patent. They were simple to manufacture. They were advertised to nurses and housewives for diapers and clothes. They were acquired by a large chemical company.


Leon Foucult was born in Paris in 1819. He became interested in Physics. He helped discover the speed of light. He did an experiment to prove rotation of earth in 1851. He invented the gyroscope in 1852. Gyroscope: spinning disc set inside gimbals. It seemed to defy laws of physics (they don’t). The gimbals allow rotation. They resist forces that try to turn them. Gyroscopes create stability. Foucult used gyroscopes to prove earth’s rotation. Electric motors applied in the 1860s. Gyroscopic compass built in 1904.          

English 6 Lesson 75

If I wanted to journey the world I would like to visit Rome, it’s the capital of Italy. I’ve started being intruded in Rome after I read Heroes of Olympus. And the same thing goes for Greece, after I read the Percy Jackson series I’ve wanted to visit these places. I’m interested in their mythology. I also would like to visit Egypt. I’m interested in Egyptian mythology. I don’t even know why but I think it’s interesting. How their beliefs are different from ours, along with the gods that they worship.   

History 5 Lesson 60

Rotary Printing Press

Riched Hoe was born in New York in 1812. He became  president of father’s press manufacturing company when he was 21. Invented the rotary press in 1843.The rotary press uses rotating drums. This allows a “Never-ending” stream of paper to be printed. The type is on the cylinder face. Hundreds of feet of paper can be loaded into the machine. In the 1820s “Newspapers” were published by political parties. Abell founded the Baltimore Sun in 1837. Abell was quick to adopt new technologies. The sun and other New York papers increased their circulation because of the printer.  The middle class began relying on newspapers for daily news. 


Abraham Gesmer was born in Canada in 1787, moved to England to become a doctor. Became interested in geology after meeting Charles Lyell. He practiced medicine and geology back home in Canada. He invented kerosene in 1846. Kerosene is a fuel and generalized trademark. Derived from petroleum. It was used for heaters, lamps, and jet fuel. Gerner formed a company in 1850 to sell lamps and oil. Expanded to the Northeastern US in 1854. An American inventor was competing with an inferior product. Meantulile Samuel Kier founded American petroleum industry. Supplies circumvented eatens by making kerosene from petroleum.


Ignaz Semmeluies was in 1818 in Budapest. He went into abstetics. Semmeluies worked for Vienna General Hospital. Decided to solve the problem of the two clinies, he observed and recorded. Breakthrough after friend’s death. Then he had the Eureka moment. He invented antiseptic use in 1847. Antiseptics kills germs. Germs cause infection, and antiseptics lowers death rates. Semmeluies reduced mortality from 18% to 2% in 1 month. His students spread the word, the establishment rejected. Repeated success in Budapest in 1852. He wrote letters to doctors across Europe. Pasteur’s germ theory reduced resistance later. Critice innored data. Conflicting theories of knowledge. 

 Gas Mask

Ancient Cultures used masks. A prussian intro created a mask for mining in 1799. Lewis P. Haslett invented the prototype of the modern version in 1847. It was probably intended to be used by Kentucky coal miners. Gas masks protect lungs from polluted air. Forces air through a filter. Particles and chemical vapors. Separate oxygen tanks may be required. Enable work in hazardous environments. Germans launched chemical weapons in World War 1.  A canadaion doctor invented a gas mask the troops. An american inventor created a mask too for American troops. The modern gas mask was invented in 1944. 

English 6 Lesson 70

Hello to the person reading this! My assignment for today was to write a one to write about a favorite book I have read or write about a good movie I have watched. This one is kinda hard for me, since I have multiple favorite movies and books. But I guess I’ll kind of be choosing both, sort of. I’m comparing my favorite book Percy Jackson, to the two movies that were made based off of the books. Warning, there are gonna be some spoilers if you haven’t read the books and you want to read the books. There are some spoilers, so just a heads up.

Now, everyone knows that books are always better than movies, although, I have to say the Harry Potter movies were good, it’s been a while since I’ve read the books, but anyway, they’re good. So I watched the Percy Jackson movies before I read the books and I loved the movies. That was until I read the books! Now, I love the books more than the movies! As in I no longer like the movies, I get it some people like the movies. But me and a friend just have a lot of problems with the movies. 

It doesn’t give me the same feeling like it does when I’m reading the books. I don’t even know how to describe the feeling I get when I read the books, but it just isn’t the same. In the movies the second movie and the second book are different, the people who made the movie mixed a certain part in the last book with the second movie the Titan, Kronos came back, in the last book. In the second movie Kronos came back, it bugs me that they did that! There’s a lot more, I could tell, you. But I guess I should tell you what the book is about. There’s three different  series, all of them written by American author Rick Riordan. The first one is called Percy Jackson and the Olympians aka PJO. Is about how Percy discovers  that he is demigod, a demigod is half God half mortal. He goes on quests, the main enemy they have to fight is Kronos. The second series is called The Heroes of Olympus, Roman and Greek demigods must learn to work together in order to defeat Gaea the earth goddess. And the third series, called Trials of Apollo, I’ve barely gotten into that book yet so I don’t have that much information on it yet.             

History 5 Lesson 55


Crawford Long was born in Gergi in 1815. He spent many years learning to become a doctor. Long moved home to Georgia to practice. Long noted the properties and effects of weather on people. Used either as an anesthetic in 1842. Diethyl ether general anesthetic for surgery. He breathed in vapor from a rag. Signaled the era of pain-free surgery. Side effect:made patients sick. Multiple liam over the invention of anesthesia. Morton, Jakson, and Long all claimed credit. All three fought bitterly which ended in humiliation and tragedy. Morton and wells probably get the idea from Long. History acknowledges Long as the inventor.

Fax Machine

Alexander Bain invented the fax machine, he was born in Scotland in 1811. Apprenticed to a clockmaker. Moved to Lonton. He learned about electromagnetic field theory. Combined clockmaking and electricity to invent a coping machine. Fax machines scan and reproduce documents. Data transmitted as audio signals. Transmits a page every five seconds over telephone lines. Reproduces documents of text or images in seconds. Bain continued to improve his fax machine. Bakewell made a better version that replaced Bain’s pendulums. An Italian developed a machine that became commercially successful around 1861. Competition emerged by 1900, and Elisha Grey created an innovative device in the US.

Steam-Powered Iron Passengers Ships

Isambard Brunel was born in England in 1806. He was educated by his father and school. He apprenticed as a clockmaker. Assisted father Marc with Thames Tunnel. Isambard built bridges and the Great Estern Railroad. Brunel wanted to add steam ships. He invented iron steamships in 1843. Large steam ships transport people and cargo long distances, steam power made their schedules predictable. It used peroellers instead of paddle wheels. It faried lots of passengers at times cheaply. Brunel was renowned throughout England. His ships outperformed rivals. Had grand visions that captured the public’s imagination. Steamship demand increased in 1880a due to immigtation to America. 

Ice Cream Maker

Making ice cream was an labor-intensive process. You had to manually spin and scrape. Nancy Johson invented the hand cranked ice cream maker. Johnson  patented it in 1843. Ice cream: Whipping cream sugar, vanilla extract. Salt lowered the melting point of ice. Ice goes in, outer vat ingredients go in the conister. Blade scrapes the ice cream from the wall. Made the process more efficient. Nancy Johnson sold patent rights.Ice cream store appeared and mass-production facilities emerged by the second half of the 1800s.   


English 6 Lesson 65

Hello again! So my assignment today was to write a short essay about one of my grandparents. Ask them about what life was like when they were growing up. Or write as if to a younger sibling. Give advice on how to be healthy. I chose the first assignment, I did something kinda simulator to the west, before I had started homeschool, I had an assignment from my fourth grade english teacher, (Because when I was in fourth grade I went to public school), anyway the assignment was to write a biography on some you admire. So I chose my grandma, so my point is I already have some information on her, I would ask my grandpa, but not all the time I can understand what he says. I think a lot of what he says is gibberish. I love him, but not all the time I understand what he’s saying. So without further ado here it is!

April L. Evans/ Romero (Aka Patches, that’s what I call my grandma) was born on April 29, 1951 in Mesa Arizona to Art and Wanda Evens. She moved with her two brothers and her parents to The ladder Ranch in 1953. Where she grew up around horses and brangus cattle. I remember this one story, that Patches told, her and her mom, along with her brothers I think went to a friends/ neighbor’s house, they had two boys, and they got Patches to come over and look at a coyote skin, they disappeared then yelled and throw the coyote skin at Patches, she screamed and ran away. Then there was this one time where he and her brothers were riding their horses  bareback and playing cowboys and indians. Their dad wouldn’t help them put their saddles up on their horses and they were too young to put them up by themselves, so that’s why they rode bareback. They would come running down the hill on their horses every time they’d car on the dirt road, it scared the people in the cars.  Except one time one of those cars was their dad, they got in so much trouble after that and they were told never to do it again. There are lots of other stories I could tell, but if I did, it would probably turn into a book.

History 5 Lesson 50

Electric Clock

Alexander Bain was born in Scotland in 1811, he was an apprentice to a clockmaker. Bain moved to London to sell services. He learned about electromagnetism. He invented the electric clock in 1840. Electricity kept the pendulum moving instead of weight. Electronic oscillators also used to replace pendulums. Synchronous clocks use Go-HZ power frequency. Crystal oscillators can be used to track time. They can be smaller, last longer, and more portable. Bain almost swindled out of his invention. Wheatstom’s attention was thwarted by Bain’s patent application. Parliament awarded Bain “damages”. Inventors after 1840 began developing different kinds of electric clocks. 


Samuel Slocum was born in Rhode Island in 1792. Learned carpentry then moved to London to make pins. He invented a machine that manufactured pins. Invented first stapler in 1841. Staples bind multiple sheets of paper together. U-shaped staples are driven through and their ends bend. Staplers used in numerous environments. They can also be used in construction and in medical application. George McGill spent 20 years improving versions of the stapler models in the early in the 1900s. 


John Herchel was born in England in 1792. Published a work on scientific methodology. Escaped to South Africa for a time in 1833. Published drawings of plants. He invented the blueprinting process in 1842. Blueprints are drawings, making it fast and easy to make copies of drawings. Chemically coated paper exposed to eight. Preserved perspectives on copies. Difficult to make changes to blueprints. The cyanotype process was used for drawings copies from  the beginning.  botanists used the technique to form images of plants. Cheaper than hiring drafters to hand copy. Scientists used the process, delinded after the 1940s. 

Grain Elevator 

Joseph Dart was born in Connecticut in 1799. He sold fers to Indian travellers, then moved into grain trading in Buffalo.  He partnered with Robert Dunbar. The two built the first grain elevator in 1844. Grain elevators lift grain up and into a silo. Dart’s was steam powered. About 8 times faster than manual unlading. Quickly unloaded, stored, and dispensed grain. Includes scale for weighing grain. Darts’s elevator built along a river. Word-of-mouth spread, Dumbar built elevators all over the world. Still prominent and important facilities today.      

English 6 Lesson 60

Hello everyone! Today’s assignment is to write a creative story about an event after the end of the book, in the later life of Amuba and Chebron. So here I go, I’m sorry if my writing style is nothing like G.A. Henty.

Chebron was sitting in the shade of a tree, just outside of the village of Rebu. He was thinking about the past events, he thought about how his arrow accidentally perched The Cat of Bubastes, and how just that one event had changed everything in his life. He thought about how he reacted when his father had shared that all of the gods he worshiped, were merely attributes of  one God. He also thought about the first few years he spent here, after Amuba was king, he became a little more busy with his duties. 

One night at dinner a cat had jumped up on the table everyone had tried to shoo it away, but the cat just sat there staring at them all. Finally someone picked up the cat and tossed it out. He chuckled to himself as he remembered his initial reaction to the treatment of the cat. For an instant his lifelong training and beliefs triggered, a horrified reaction to the treatment of the cat. Then he remembered his conversion over to the one the  god. And that the cat was merely an attribute of one God he worshiped. There were many other traditions and customs that Chebron had to learn, get used to the ways of the people of Rebu. But the cat incident stood out as a turning point in becoming a useful and happy person that he and Ruth had become, in the country of Rebu.     

History 5 Lesson 45

Steel Plow 

John Deere was born in Vermont in 1804. He went to a congregational college. He became a town blacksmith in 1825. Insight: polished needles are easier to use. Deere invented the steel plow in 1837. Prairie soil was extremely fertile. It stuck to the  mouldboard. Soil didn’t stick to the polished steel plow. Mouldboard was optimized to turn over the soil. The plow was self-cleaning, Deere tested his plow at his neighbors farm. Initial sales spread by word-of-mouth. He offered a risk-free guarantee. Built a factory near rivers and railroads. John Deere went into competition with International Harvester. 

Steam Shovel

Pelham, Massachusetts was settled in 1738 by Scottish Presbyterans. William Smith Otis was born in Pelham in 1813. Otas became fascinated with mechanical inventions. He invented the steam shovel at the age of 22 in 1835. He died within a year of  receiving the  patent. It’s basically a steam powered dirt-moving bucket. Steam pistons provide a source of motion. Like a movable crane. Holes could be dug deeper faster. Otis’ relatives hung onto the patent for 40 years. Railroads drove the steam shovel demand. Efficiency increased over time. It spread more rapidly after the patent expired. Made taller buildings possible.

Postage Stamp

Rowland Hill was born in England in 1795. He had influential family friends. He went to work for the government. Rowland promoted Priestley’s educational reform. He invented the postage stamp in 1838. It’s a piece of paper with adhesive backing. It shows that postage had been paid. Postage is based on weight not distance. Beautiful illustrations on them. Marked with postmarks to show they’ve been used. Postage reforms approved in 1839. Hill worked with Charles Bebbage to show costs weren’t from long distances. Postage reforms approved in 1839. Received support from merchants and businessmen. The postage system became a government monopoly. The price for sending mail fell and Demand increased.

Vulcanized Rubber

Charles Goodyear was born in Connecticut in 1800. He mechanically minded and entrepreneurial. Improved a company’s rubber life preservers. He was determined to solve a “sticky” problem. Mixing other chemicals was part of the process. Invented Vulcanized rubber in 1839. Vulcanization eliminates the stickiness. The refined rubber is weatherproof. Mix in a chemical life sulfur, then apply heat. Very durable, not brittle. Goodyear found a factory to produce rubber products. He died in 1860. A Goodyear company formed in 1898. It produced bicycle tires and poker chips, it expanded into wartime production with government contracts.