Engishmen were making sparkling wine by 1662. Joseph Priestley was a scientist who investigated air, he investigated air in the beer brewery in 1767. The strange air he observed would make water bubbly. He published his discovery of soda water in a paper, soda water is water with carbon dioxide. When drinks are kept under pressure by filling a thin bottle with co2. There are some slight health benefits, crucial to the soft drink market. Mixed drinks with soda water became popular. Priestley used his discovery to enhance his reputation. Schweppe opened a business in 1783 to produce soda water. Darwin’s grandfather helped Schweppes’s business succeed. Acoptiter patented “soda water” in Ireland in 1799. Companies distinguished themselves by offering different flavors of soda.
Joseph Priestley was born in England in 1733, he suffered a faith crisis when he was 16. He attended a dissenting university. He taught science and liberal theology for a living. He married into the wealthy Wilkinson family who helped support his scientific dabbling. Priestley invented a new method for producing co2 gas. He discovered oxygen around 1775, He identified the process of photosynthesis. He founded the Unitarian Church in England and America. Priestley’s book on electricity was popular. He extended his influence through teaching and preaching. He engaged in philosophical debates.
Balances have been used since early in history. The Israelites were given requirements for weight and measurements. Using false weights cheats people. The balance is symbolic of justice. The need for rapid measuring increased as commerce expanded. Scales measure weight, spring scales measure rely on Hooke’s law. F=K X. Spring scales allow you to read weight immediately, this saves time. Salter’s scales were hand-held models. He founded a successful spring company with his nephews. They built bathroom scales in the 1800s. Candle scale built for postal workers.
The French were suffering from weapon problems, their cannons randomly explode when fired. Their hardness was inconsistent when throughout. A french officer visited John Wilkinson to learn how he made cannons. Wilkinson invented the boring machine in 1774 to build better cannons. Boring machines make holes in solid metal. The machine rotates the barrel being bored. Coolant is applied to keep the metals from melting. The boring machine was extremely. Wilkinson’s boring machine was used to make Watt’s steam engine. Before it, the precision required was impossible to attain. William Wilkinson built a factory in France. The new boring machine used manufactured French cannons, American cannons too.