History 4 lesson 150


Ideas for parachutes appeared during the Renaissance. Da Vinci drew a working parachute design in 1485. Lois-Sebastien Lenormand invented the first parachute in 1783. He was a French scientist, he was inspired by watching a tight-rope walker. Parachutes slow down your descent to the ground, it is used in numerous applications. Skydiving is a popular sport. In my opinion it is scary you’re plummeting to the GROUND!!! Anyway they are useful as a safety device. The Military uses it for air-dropping into enemy territory. Lenormand coined the word “parachute” in 1785. A balloonist a new model in 1785. It was a safety device for escaping hot-air balloons. Garnerin demonstrated the all-fabric model in 1797. Demonstrations attracted large crowds. Charles Brcadwick built models for the US military in the 1900s.

Selective Breeding

Robert Bakeewell was born in 1725. He grew up on the farm, Bakewell applied his knowledge to his dad’s farm. He noticed something peculiar about the longhorn steer. Selective breeding was his way of raising higher quality animals. Selective breeding produces desirable traits. The breeder must determine what trait to emphasize. Two similar parents need to be matched up.Various breeding techniques are used. Genetic diversity improves animal heath. Bakewell broke with tradition. Bakewell sold his animals at market. He sold purebred animals to other farmers. Bakewell formed a society in 1783 to train other farmers. Bakewell was a successful and a good teacher. 


Martin Van marum was born in the 1750s. He took his Groningen education to Haralem, the science center. Marum ran the Teylers museum. In 1784, he designed a large generator, with it he invented electrolysis. Electrolysis breaks compounds into elements. Electric current splits the compounds. Current is the flow of electrons from one point to another. Electrolysis is used to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas, and extract metal from ore. Also used to create methane gas. Van Marum repeatedly demonstrated the process in lectures.  By 1800, other scientists were also using it to discover seven elements. Michael Faraday developed the laws of electrolysis It was used to make metals and compounds through the 1900.

Threshing Machine

Andrew Mikle was born in 1719. His father was an inventor who worked in the mills. Any early version of the threshing machine failed commercially. Meikle fixed their problems. He patented the threshing machine in 1788. Threshing: beating the wheat from the chaff. Meikle’s machine was hand-fed and the size of a piano. It reduced the labor required to harvest wheat grains. Modern machines combine all the harvesting processes. That’s why they are called “combines”. The machine didn’t change too much over the next 100 years. Meikle didn’t get rich on them, others made changes and got around his patent. Like others, the invention drew the ire of angry mobs. The swing Riots in the 1830s destroyed hundreds of threshing machines.  

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