History 5 Lesson 85

Ironing board 

Heavy stones were used to smooth clothes. The Chinese  heated their irons. Fashions became more elaborate in the 1100s. They required hot ironing. People discovered the flat surfaces work best when ironing. They used the kitchen table. Then the ironing board was invented in 1858. Unwrinkled clothes make a good impression. Manual workers have wrinkled clothes. Ironing: Physical and chemical process. Padded-foam surface for absorbing heat. Designed sharp makers ironing different kinds of clothes convenient  The ironing board was improved. Mrs. Potts invented improved iron in 1871. The electric iron arrived in 1892. The ironing board sales benefited from the electric iron. 

Internal Combustion Engine

Erienne Lenoirwas born in Belgium in 1822. He became interested in electricity. Used the sparkes to invent the internal combustion engine in 1859. Uses small controlled explosions to drive pistons. Cams play an important role. Comes control valve tuning. Intake compression power exhaust. Comes control valve timing. The engine was used in small stationary applications. Nickola Otto invented the 4-stroke engine (Otto cycle). It was released in 1876. Ford was founded in 1901.

Lever-Action Repeating Rifle  

Benjamin Tyler Henry was born in New Hampshire in 1821. Worked for smith and Wesson. They developed the Hunt’s lever-action rifle concept. Henry went to work for Mr.Winchester. Invented the lever-action repeating rifle in 1860. Lever-action rear-loading cartridge rifle. Held 16 .44 caliber rounds. The lever controlled carriage flow. Could fire several shots rapidly at close range. Some were used in the Civil War, but Springfield dominated. Union soldiers used their own money to buy the Henry rifle. Winchester developed the Winchester rifle to avoid litigation with Henry. The rifle became famously known as “the gun that won the west”. 

Twist Drill  

Rotary tools have long been used to bore holes. Bow drill helps make fire. Steven A Morse invented the twist drill in 1861. Drill bits are cutting tools. It lifts and removes the debris as it turns. Bits are optimized for the material they cut. Wood bits and metal bits have different tips, the most common bit used today. Morse moved to Massachusetts Built a two-story factory in 1866. Produced twist bits for numerous industries. Sold them all over the world.               

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