History 4 lesson 140

Lead Chamber Process

John Roebuck went to med school in Edinburgh, Scotland, He was taught by William Cullen, a prominent Scotsman. He graduated med school and set up practice in Birmingham. He continued nourishing his interest in Chemistry. Roebuck was familiar with the history of sulfuric acid production. Sulfuric acid is important to the modern economy, used for fertilizer,pesticides, dyes, metals. The lead chamber process increased production capability. Roebuck replaced glass jars with lead-lined rooms. Sulfur saltpeter water= sulfuric acid, Roebuck didn’t patent the method. He kept his invention secret. He built a factory in Edinburgh, the lead chambers were as large as a bedroom. Competing factories sprung up in England and in France.

Spinning Jenny

London Society of Arts took notice of growing weaving industry issues.  They offered cash prices in 1760 for new spinning inventions. James Hargreaves, born in 1721 in England. He was a poor uneducated waver. He had a flash of insight that led to the creation of the Spinning Jenny. I spun eleven threads at once in 1764 then over hundred by 1784. Thread production finally caught up to increased cloth production. It was hand-operated. “Jenny” is short for engine. Thread prices fell, and so did clothes prices. Hargreaves built several for his own use. One spinner could now do the job of s hundred. Envious mobs attacked Hargreaves’s house and destroyed his property. He set up shop in another town. Fabric producers understood the Spinning Jenny’s benefits. 

Richard Arkwright

Richard Arkwright was born in 1731 in England. He apprenticed as a barber. About a year after his son was born his wife died, he turned his sorrow into ambition. He turned to wig making in the 1750s and invented waterproof wig dye, then he turned to textile manufacturing and hired John Kay. Arkwright was an important person. He has sometimes been called “The Father Of The Industrial  Revolution”.  Invented the water frame in 1768.  He invented a new carding machine in 1775.  He developed an early factory system in 177os.  He employed children and used steam engines in his mills. Arkwright developed an extensive business network. Factories expanded all over England. Arkwright achieved recognition by the king for his contributions. He left behind a huge fortune in 1792 (he died at 59 years old).

James Watt

James Watt was born in 1736 Scotland to Covenanter parents. He learned to make science kind of instruments and opened his own business. The university of Glasgow offered him work. A friend introduced him to steam power in 1759. He developed his conden around 1763. Watt is primarily associated with the steam engine. He invented the sun-and -planet gear to get around a crank-connecting rod patent. In 1780 he invented a new way of coping documents. He experimented with chemistry but wasn’t as commercially successful. Watt was influential with other inventors. He opened the Soho Foundry, way ahead of its time. Scientific societies honored him. Newcomen engine owners adapted their engines to incorporate Watt’s enhancements.       


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