History 5 Lesson 70

Safety Elevator

Elisha Otis was born in Vermont in 1811. He moved his family to a river in town. He built a grist mill. Otis owned his own business but it failed. Then he invented the safety elevator in 1852. Elevators transport people and supplies up and down. There was a cab lifted by steel cable and balanced with countwightes. What happens if the cable snaps? The elevator used a backup ratchet system. Farliest elevators required manual lifting. Despite the apartment benefits, it was slow to sell initially. Otis rented space at the World’s Fair in 1853. He put on a dramatic demonstration. And the sales became steady. 


Alexander Wood was born in Scotland in 1817. Wood was trained in classical curriculum. He attained a medical degree at Edinburgh. He invented the syringe in 1853, he was inspired by bee stingers. Doctors use hypodermic syringes. It’s basically a “reciprocating pump”.  The syringe can precisely control the amount injected. It’s also used outside the medical industry. Even in industrial settings. It was popularized in France by a doctor. The one-Handed syringe was invented in 1899, then the glass syringe was invented in 1946, and finally disposable syringe in 1949. 

The Bessemer Process 

Henry Bessemer was born in England in 1813. He was a  prolific inventor like his dad. He grew interested in weapons due to the  Crimlam War. Napoleon III wanted more steel for better weapons. Bessemer steel-making process in 1855. The Bessemer process converts pig iron into steel. It forces hot air through molten iron to remove impurity. Steel contains 2% carbon. Made large-scale steel production feasible. This recused it’s price and made it affordable in large jobs. Bessemer licensed his patent to five English ironmakers. They couldn’t understand his process, so he opened his own factory. His process then spread to America in 1862. 

Egg- Beater

Ancient Egyptians invented a baking oven. It grew from family labor to profession in Rome. Guilds arose and fasted through the Middle Ages. The mixer was invented in 1856 by Ralph collier. Egg-beater is a kitchen mixer. It automates the repetitive nature of mixing. It’s a handheld device that makes mixing ingredients much easier.Electric mixers grew up out of hand mixers. Other inventors saw collier;s patent and pursued their own. An 1859 model was sold to a major company. Another innovative mixer followed the same pattern in 1870. Herbert John invented the KitchenAid mixer in 1918.

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