History 5 Lesson 80

Salt and Pepper Shakers 

Elaborate shakers were made of precious metals, before the shakers, people pinched or scooped with a spoon. Salt and pepper shakers were invented in 1858 by John Mason. Shakers are basic for seasoning food. It’s basically a glass jar with a screw-top lid. Lids contain different sized holes, they are easily refilled. It’s a sanitary way of sharing the seasonings. It became popular after Mason’s patent expired. Salt was difficult to shake out. Motor salt improved the formula in the 1920s. Ceramic shakers were sold during the Great Depression Diners began stockting them. 

    Mason Jar

Nicolas Appert invented the canning process. Before the mason jar they used champagne bottles, they canned all sorts of foods. Intended to supply Napoleon’s army. Canning became important to American families in 1830s. John Mason invented mason jar in 1858. A glass jar with screw top and a metal lid. The glass was strong, cheap soda-lime glass. Primarily used for home canning. Healing the food kills barterical and allows vacuum seals to form. Families can enjoy out-of-season food. Mostly used for canning fruits and jellies at first. But began to replace older methods of preservation. Popular among westward moving American selters. His patent expired in 1879, which led to mass production. Others made incremental improvements. 

Pencil Eraser

Two men discovered a rubber eraser in 1770. Priestly gave “rubber” its name. Edwards Nairne was a pro life English inventor. Accidentally discovered rubber is a good eraser. Hyman Lipman combined pencil and eraser in 1858. Erasers quickly remove pencil marks. Stored in a cylindrical, metal barrel, on the end of a pencil. Works by a combination of chemical and physical action. Modern erasers are made of various materials. Conveniently attached to pencils. Lipman sold his patent for $100,000. Richendorfer then sued Faber. The Supreme court ruled against Rickendorfer. A simple idea that was not obvious. The lawsuit helped make the invention visible. Most pencils and erasers by 1920s. 

Twine Binder

John Applesby was born in New York in 1840. John grew up on a farm while going to school. McCormick’s reaper was a big improvement to Appleby’s farming life. Applby invent twine binder 1858. Perfectly complemented reaping machines. Twine was effective but safe binding material. Mechanically knots automatically. Saved a lot of time and reduced field labor. Development stalled out during the civil war. Appleby honed his inventive skills on the battlefield. Received renewed investment interest in 1867 following a public demonstration. Built a manufacturing factory in 1872. Partnered with deering and McCormick, who licensed his patent.            

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