History 5 Lesson 90

Postcard 

A British Comedian played a joke in 1810. The Postcard concept appeared in 1861 in the US. John P. Charlton patented the idea.Had help from Hymen Lipman inventor of pencil eraser. The postcard is simple and useful. People can send cheap messages. They provide a personal touch. Economical for average people in the early days of communications Lipman’s creativity helped sell the postcard. Spread to Englanf in 1870. The Eiffel Tower was a popular postcard picture. The US revoked rights of others to sell postcards in 1873 but revered in 1898. Golden age of postcards from 1907-1915. 

Gatling Gun 

Richard Gatling was born in North Carolina in 1818. He was a store owner, doctor and inventor. The Civil War provided his source of inspiration. Wanted to save lives by reducing soldiers needed on the battlefield. Invented Gatling Gun in 1861. It’s a raid-fire-multi-barrel gun. The hand crank rotated barrels to keep them cool. Firing sequence synchronized by cams. It had gravity-fed paper cartridges. Modern Gatling guns fire 4,000 rounds per minute. Galting had some setbacks initially.  Gatling demonstrated the gun to the army in live combat. Gradually increased rate of fire. Armies all over the world purchased these guns.

Linoleum

Fredrick Walton was born in England in 1834. He noticed that linseed oil dried into “runny” consistency. Walton experimented with drying the linseed oil faster than normal. Patented linoleum in 1863. Linoleum is a durable floor covering. Can be imprinted with decorative designs. Made out of lisseal oil combined with saw dust and cork. Walter had trouble generating sales initially. He had to develop marking to overcome his competition. Cheap imitators appeared by 1871. Walter expanded his market internationally. His name “Linoleum Became a generic trademark.

      Ratcheting Wrench

   The socket was not brand new in the 1800s. Ancient cultures used sockets to fasten tools together. First wrench patented in 1835. J.J. Richardson patented ratcheting wrench in 1863. The ratchet only allows motion in one direction. Socket heads plug into cylinders. It allows very quick tightening. It was easier to get into small spaces. It can quickly swap sires. Useful in making torque wrenches. Richardson patented his wrench through scientific American. It was then advertised in the magazine. This was a specialized highly targeted audience.

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