History 5 Lesson 75

Condensed Milk 

Gail Borden Jr. was born in New York in 1801. He published a newspaper during the Texas Revolution. His wife died of yellow fever in 1844. He witnessed children dying because of bad milk. Borden invented condensed milk in 1856. Condensed and sweetened cow’s milk. Microorganisms cause milk to spoil. Heating the milk prevents spoilage. Sugar is added as a preservative. Useful in recipes and stores for a long time. Borden’s milk was known for its high quality. High demand from the word after the war ended. Production ramped up from competitors leading to a price crash. 

Sleeping Car 

Goerge Pullman was born in New York in 1831. He helped father move houses along the eire canal. He put his engineering skills to use in Chicago. Raised foundations out of the swamp. He invented the sleeping car in 1865. Provides living space on long train rides. Beds folded up during the daytime. On-board porters served customers. It was basically a hotel on wheels. It was a comfortable way to pass the time. Pullman took advantage of the one-time opportunity. 

Toilet Paper 

China invented lots of things early on. Including toilet paper. The Romans used a sponge on a stick, the American colonists used corn cobs. Joseph Gayetty invented toilet paper in 1857. Toilet paper is made of a combination of hard and soft wood fibers factories convert raw pulp into toilet paper. Gayetty marketed his paper beginning in 1857. Targeted customers with itchy pain. 

Washing Machine 

Washing clothes was time consuming. Women had to haul lots of water. Inventors began focusing on the process in the 18th century. Washboard made it easier to hand-wash clothes. Hamilton Smith invented the washing machine in 1858. Washing machines clean soiled clothes. Water and soap loosen the dirt. Agitators scrub the clothes. The washing machine saved a lot of time. Smith’s machine didn’t use electricity but it was easier than a washboard. An English machine was demonstrated at the World’s fair in 1862. Electricity applied in 1904. A million units sold annually by 1928.

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